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OCT     21995 




NEW  YORK  :  E.  &  J.  B.  YOUNG  &  CO. 



IT  has  seemed  that  the  Ordinal  of  the  Church  of 
England  thus  annotated  and  arranged  might  be  of 
use.  In  selecting  patristic  and  liturgical  illustrations 
I  have  been  much  indebted  to  Canon  Bailey's 
valuable  Rituale  Anglo-Catholicum.  For  some  im 
portant  suggestions  my  thanks  are  specially  due 
to  the  late  Canon  Churton,  to  the  Rev.  J.  H.  Maude, 

and  to  the  Rev.  H.  Gee. 

B.  J. 

Michaelmas,  1897. 

A    2 



THE  USE  OF  ST.  ALBANS  .  ...  5 

DECLARATION  AND  OATH  .  .  .  .  .6 

ARTICLE  XXIII  ...  .  .  7 

XXXVI  .  .8 


BIDDING  PRAYER  .....  -13 


THE  ORDINAL  .  ...  .24 

INDEX  86 


H  Candidates  attend  Morning  Prayer  unvested.  They  vest  imme 
diately  after  Morning  Prayer  in  cassock,  surplice,  and  hood ; 
those  to  be  ordained  Deacons  carrying  their  stoles  with  them, 
those  to  be  ordained  Priests  wearing  their  stoles  over  the  left 

IF  The  Ordination  Service  p  roper  begins  with  the  Bidding  Prayer 
(p.  13)  and  Sermon. 

U  After  the  Sermon  the  Preacher  comes  back  to  his  place. 

IF  On  the  return  of  the  Preacher  to  his  place  the  candidates  for 
Deacon's  Orders  are  fetched  by  an  Examining  Chaplain,  who 
precedes  them  to  the  step  in  front  of  the  Bishop,  and  there  pre 
sents  them. 

IF  The  Deacons  then  return  to  their  places,  and  an  Examining 
Chaplain  in  like  manner  presents  the  candidates  for  Priest's 

IF  After  the  Epistle  the  candidates  for  Deacons  Orders  come  to 
the  Altar-step,  the  Gospel-Deacon  last. 

If  Immediately  after  the  Ordination  of  the  Gospel-Deacon  he  comes 
within  the  rails  and  reads  the  Gospel. 

IF  The  Deacons  then  return  to  their  places,  and  the  candidates 
for  Priest's  Orders  stand  before  the  Altar-rail,  leaving  a  clear 
space  before  the  Bishop. 

^F  As  each  Priest  is  Ordered,  he  kneels  at  the  Altar-rail,  and 
remains  in  his  place  there  until  he  has  received  the  Communion. 

N.  B. — The  Bishop  requests  that  all  Priests  who  take  part  in  the 
"Laying  on  of  Hands,"  should  come  into  the  Sacrarium,  if  not 
before  the  beginning  of  the  Communion  Service,  at  least  imme 
diately  before  the  Veni  Creator  is  sung,  and  that  they  should  then 
stand  on  the  right  and  left  of  the  Bishop,  facing  the  Candidates, 


and  should  continue  so  standing  during  the  Veni  Creator,  and  the 
Prayer  which  immediately  follows.  If  there  is  not  room  for  them 
in  the  Sacrarium,  they  should  return  to  their  places  immediately 
after  the  Ordination  and  before  the  Nicene  Creed  is  sung. 

To  avoid  undue  crowding  it  may  be  remarked  that  while  it  is 
desirable  that  Priests  should  touch  the  head  of  the  ordinand,  it 
may  suffice  that  they  extend  their  hands  over  his  head. 

[Cassock  from  Ital.  casacca  =  coat.  Latin  casa  =  house  VSKAD 
cover.  Surplice  fromLat.  superpelliceum,  orig.  an  "over-leathern" 
garment.  Stole  from  Gk.  ffToXrj  =  garb,  used  from  the  ninth 
century  for  the  orarium,  of  uncertain  derivation,  but  probably 
originally  the  kerchief  for  the  os,  oris  =  face.  Hood  =  Germ.  hut. 
^/KAT — hide,  a  covering  for  the  head,  first  narrowed  to  monastic 
use,  and  later,  as  now,  to  the  academic.] 

Declaration  to  be  made  and  subscribed,  and  oath  to  be 
taken  and  subscribed,  by  all  persons  who  are  to  be 
ordained  Deacon  or  Priest.  Vide  28  &  29  Viet.  chap. 


I,  M.  N.,  about  to  be  admitted  to  the  Holy  Order  of ,  do 

solemnly  make  the  following  Declaration  : — I  assent  to  the  Thirty- 
nine  Articles  of  Religion,  and  to  the  Book  of  Common  Prayer,  and 
of  the  Ordering  of  Bishops,  Priests,  and  Deacons.  I  believe  the 
Doctrine  of  the  Church  of  England,  as  therein  set  forth,  to  be 
agreeable  to  the  Word  of  God  :  and  in  Public  Prayer  and  Adminis 
tration  of  the  Sacraments  I  will  use  the  Form  in  the  said  Book 
prescribed,  and  none  other,  except  so  far  as  shall  be  ordered  by  law 
ful  authority. 

I,  M.  N.,  about  to  be  admitted  to  the  Holy  Order  of ,  do 

swear  that  I  will  be  faithful  and  bear  true  allegiance  to  Her  Majesty 
Queen  Victoria,  her  heirs  and  successors,  according  to  law.  So 
help  me  God. 

Every  Clergyman  about  to  be  licensed  to  any  curacy 
has  to  take  the  Oath  of  Canonical  Obedience  to  the 
Bishop,  and  make  the  Declaration  of  Assent. 

THE  OATH  OF  CANONICAL  OBEDIENCE. — I,  A.  B.,  do  swear  that 

I  will  pay  true  and  canonical  obedience  to  the  Lord  Bishop  of , 

and  his  successors,  in  all  things  lawful  and  honest.    So  help  me  God. 



Nemo  in  Ecclesia  ministret  nisi  uocatu?. 

Non  licet  cuiquaui  surnere  sibi  niunus  publice 
praedicandi,  aut  administrandi  Sacramenta  in 
Ecclesia.,  nisi  prius  fuerit  ad  haec  obeunda  legitime 
uocatus  e.t  missus.  Atque  illos  legitime  uocatos 
et  missos  existimare  debemus,  qui  per  homines, 
quibus  potestas  uocandi  Ministros  atque  mittendi 
in  uinearn  Domini  publice  concessa  est  in  Ecclesia, 
cooptati  fuerint  et  asciti  in  hoc  opus. 

Of  'ministry  >ng  in  the  congregation. 

It  is  not  lawful  for  any  man  to  take  upon  hym 
the  office  of  publique  preachyng,  or  ministring  the 
Sacramentes  in  the  congregation,  before  he  be 
lawfully  called  and  sent  to  execute  the  same.  And 
those  we  ought  to  judge  lawfully  called  and  sent, 
whiche  be  chosen  and  called  to  this  worke  by  men 
who  have  publique  aucthoritie  geuen  unto  them  in 
the  congregation,  to  call  and  sende  ministers  into 
the  Lorde's  vineyarde. 




De  Episcoporum  et  Ministrorum  consecratione. 

Libellus  de  Consecratione  Archiepiscoporum  et 
Episcoporum  et  de  ordinatione  Presbyterorum 
et  Diaconorum  editus  nuper  temporibus  Edwardi 
sexti,  et  autoritate  Parlamenti  illis  ipsis  temporibus 
confirmatus,  omnia  ad  eiusmodi  consecrationem  et 
ordinationem  necessaria  continet,  et  nihil  habet 
quod  ex  se  sit  aut  superstitiosum  aut  impium. 
Itaque  quicunque  iuxta  ritus  illius  libri  consecrati 
aut  ordinati  sunt  ab  Anno  secundo  praedicti  Regis 
Edwardi,  usque  ad  hoc  tempus,  aut  in  posterum 
iuxta  eosdem  ritus  consecrabuntur  aut  ordina- 
buntur  rite,  ordine,  atque  legitime,  statuimus  esse 
et  fore  consecrates  et  ordinatos. 


Of  consecration  of  Bishops  and  Ministers. 
The  booke  of  Consecration  of  Archbyshops,  and 
Byshops,  and  ordering  of  Priestes  and  Deacons, 
lately  set  foorth  in  the  time  of  Edwarde  the  Sixt, 
and  confyrmed  at  the  same  tyme  by  aucthoritie 
of  Parliament,  doth  conteyne  all  things  necessarie 
to  suche  consecration  and  orderyng ;  ney ther  hath  it 
any  thing,  that  of  itselfe  is  superstitious  or  vngodly. 
And  therefore,  whosoeuer  are  consecrate  or  ordered 
accordyng  to  the  rites  of  that  booke,  since  the 
seconde  yere  of  the  aforenamed  King  Edwarde, 
vnto  this  time,  or  hereafter  shal  be  consecrated 
or  ordered  accordyng  to  the  same  rites,  we  decree 
all  such  to  be  ryghtly,  orderly,  and  lawfully  con 
secrated  and  ordered. 



31.  Four  solemn  Times  appointed  for  the  Making 
of  Ministers. 

Forasmuch  as  the  ancient  Fathers  of  the  Church, 
led  by  example  of  the  Apostles,  appointed  prayers 
and  fasts  to  be  used  at  the  solemn  Ordering  of 
Ministers,  and  to  that  purpose  allotted  certain 
times,  in  which  only  Sacred  Orders  might  be  given 
or  conferred  ;  we,  following  their  holy  and  religious 
example,  do  constitute  and  decree,  that  no  Deacons 
or  Ministers  be  made  and  ordained,  but  only  upon 
the  Sundays  immediately  following  leiunia  quatuor 
tentyorum,  commonly  called  JEmber  Weeks,  appointed 
in  ancient  time  for  prayer  and  fasting,  (purposely 
for  this  cause  at  their  first  institution,)  and  so 
continued  at  this  day  in  the  Church  of  England : 
and  that  this  be  done  in  the  Cathedral  or  Parish 
Church  where  the  Bishop  resideth,  and  in  the  time 
of  Divine  Service,  in  the  presence  not  only  of  the 
Archdeacon,  but  of  the  Dean  and  two  Prebendaries 
at  the  least,  or  (if  they  shall  happen  by  any  lawful 
cause  to  be  let  or  hindered)  in  the  presence  of  four 
other  grave  persons,  being  Masters  of  Arts  at  the 
least,  and  allowed  for  publick  Preachers. 

32.  None  to  be  made  Deacon  and  Minister  both 
in  one  day. 

The  office  of  Deacon  being  a  step  or  degree  to 
the  Ministry,  according  to  the  judgement  of  the 
ancient  Fathers,  and  the  practice  of  the  primitive 
Church ;  we  do  ordain  and  appoint,  that  hereafter 


no  Bishop  shall  make  any  person,  of  what  qualities 
or  gifts  soever,  a  Deacon  and  a  Minister  both 
together  upon  one  day  ;  but  that  the  order  in  that 
behalf  prescribed  in  the  Book  of  making  and  con 
secrating  Bishops,  Priests,  and  Deacons  be  strictly 
observed.  Not  that  always  every  Deacon  should 
be  kept  from  the  Ministry  for  a  whole  year,  when 
the  Bishop  shall  find  good  cause  to  the  contrary ; 
but  that  there  being  now  four  times  appointed  in 
every  year  for  the  Ordination  of  Deacons  and 
Ministers,  there  may  ever  be  some  time  of  trial 
of  their  behaviour  in  the  office  of  Deacon,  before 
they  be  admitted  to  the  order  of  Priesthood. 

33.  The  Titles  of  such  as  are  to  be  made  Ministers. 

It  hath  been  long  since  provided  by  many 
decrees  of  the  ancient  Fathers,  that  none  should  be 
admitted  either  Deacon  or  Priest,  who  had  not 
first  some  certain  place  where  he  might  use  his 
function.  According  to  which  examples  we  do 
ordain,  that  henceforth  no  person  shall  be  admitted 
into  Sacred  Orders  except  he  shall  at  that  time 
exhibit  to  the  Bishop,  of  whom  he  desireth  imposi 
tion  of  hands,  a  Presentation  of  himself  to  some 
Ecclesiastical  Preferment  then  void  in  that  diocese  ; 
or  shall  bring  to  the  said  Bishop  a  true  and 
undoubted  certificate,  that  either  he  is  provided  of 
some  Church  within  the  said  diocese,  where  he 
may  attend  the  cure  of  souls,  or  of  some  Minister's 
place  vacant,  either  in  the  Cathedral  Church  of  that 
diocese,  or  in  some  other  Collegiate  Church  therein 
also  situate,  where  he  may  execute  his  ministry ; 


or  that  he  is  a  Fellow,  or  in  right  as  a  Fellow,  or  to 
be  a  Conduct  or  Chaplain  in  some  College  in 
Cambridge  or  Oxford  ;  or  except  he  be  a  Master 
of  Aiis  of  five  years'  standing,  that  liveth  of  his 
own  charge  in  either  of  the  Universities  ;  or  except 
by  the  Bishop  himself,  that  doth  ordain  him 
Minister,  he  be  shortly  after  to  be  admitted  either 
to  some  Benefice  or  Curateship  then  void.  And  if 
any  Bishop  shall  admit  any  person  into  the 
ministry,  that  hath  none  of  these  titles  as  is  afore 
said,  then  he  shall  keep  and  maintain  him  with  all 
things  necessary,  till  he  do  prefer  him  to  some 
Ecclesiastical  Living.  And  if  the  said  Bishop 
shall  refuse  so  to  do,  he  shall  be  suspended  by 
the  Archbishop,  being  assisted  with  another 
Bishop,  from  giving  of  Orders  by  the  space  of 
a  year. 

34.    The  Quality  of  such  as  are  to  be  made 

No  Bishop  shall  henceforth  admit  any  person 
into  Sacred  Orders,  which  is  not  of  his  own  diocese, 
except  he  be  either  of  one  of  the  Universities  of 
this  realm,  or  except  he  shall  bring  Letters  Dimis- 
sory  (so  termed)  from  the  Bishop  of  whose  diocese 
he  is  ;  and  desiring  to  be  a  Deacon,  is  three  and 
twenty  years  old ;  and  to  be  a  Priest,  four  and 
twenty  years  complete ;  and  hath  taken  some 
degree  of  school  in  either  of  the  ?aid  Universities  ; 

o  • 

or  at  the  least,  except  he  be  able  to  yield  an  account 
of  his  faith  in  Latin,  according  to  the  Articles  of 
Religion  approved  in  the  Synod  of  the  Bishops  and 


Clergy  of  this  realm,  one  thousand  five  hundred 
sixty  and  two,  and  to  confirm  the  same  by  suffi 
cient  testimonies  out  of  the  Holy  Scriptures ;  and 
except  moreover  he  shall  then  exhibit  Letters 
Testimonial  of  his  good  life  and  conversation, 
under  the  seal  of  some  College  in  Cambridge  or 
Oxford,  where  before  he  remained,  or  of  three  or 
four  grave  Ministers,  together  with  the  subscription 
and  testimony  of  other  credible  persons,  who  have 
known  his  life  and  behaviour  by  the  space  of 
three  years  next  before. 

35.  The  Examinations  of  such  as  are  to  be  made 

The  Bishop,  before  he  admit  .any  person  to  Holy 
Orders,  shall  diligently  examine  him  in  the 
presence  of  those  Ministers  that  shall  assist  him 
at  the  imposition  of  hands  :  and  if  the  said  Bishop 
have  any  lawful  impediment,  he  shall  cause  the 
said  Ministers  carefully  to  examine  every  such 
person  so  to  be  ordered.  Provided,  that  they  who 
shall  assist  the  Bishop  in  examining  and  laying 
on  of  hands,  shall  be  of  his  Cathedral  Church,  if 
they  may  conveniently  be  had,  or  other  sufficient 
Preachers  of  the  same  diocese,  to  the  number  of 
three  at  the  least :  and  if  any  Bishop  or  Suffragan 
shall  admit  any  to  Sacred  Orders  who  is  not  so 
qualified  and  examined,  as  before  we  have  ordained, 
the  Archbishop  of  his  province,  having  notice 
thereof,  and  being  assisted  therein  by  one  Bishop, 
shall  suspend  the  said  Bishop  or  Suffragan  so 
offending,  from  making  either  Deacons  or  Priests 
for  the  space  of  two  years. 


Ye  shall  pray  for  Christ's  holy  Catholic  Church, 
that  is,  for  the  whole  congregation  of  Christian 
people  dispersed  throughout  the  whole  world,  and 
especially  for  the  Church  of  England  ;  and  herein 
I  require  you  most  especially  to  pray  for  the  Queen's 
most  excellent  Majesty,  our  Soveregn  Lady  Victoria, 
by  the  Grace  of  GOD  Queen  of  Great  Britain  and 
Ireland,  Empress  of  India,  Defender  of  the  Faith, 
and  supreme  governor  in  these  her  realms,  and  all 
other  her  dominions  and  countries,  over  all  persons, 
in  all  causes,  as  well  ecclesiastical  as  temporal :  Ye 
shall  also  pray  for  the  noble  prince  Albert  Edward, 
Prince  of  Wales,  the  Princess  of  Wales,  and  the 
rest  of  the  royal  family  :  Ye  shall  also  pray  for  the 
ministers  of  God's  holy  word  and  sacraments, 
and  as  well  Archbishops  and  Bishops,  and  here  are 
we  especially  bound  to  pray  for  ...  Lord  Archbishop 
of  this  Province,  and  for  ...  by  Divine  permission, 
Lord  Bishop  of  this  Diocese:  Ye  shall  also  pray  for 
the  Queen's  most  honourable  council,  and  for  all  the 
nobility  and  magistrates  of  this  realm ;  that  all  and 
every  of  these,  in  their  several  callings,  may  serve 
truly  and  painfully  to  the  glory  of  God  and  the 
edifying  and  well-governing  of  His  people,  remem 
bering  the  account  that  they  must  make :  also  ye 
shall  pray  for  the  whole  commons  of  this  realm, 
that  they  may  live  in  the  true  faith  and  fear  of  God, 


in  humble  obedience  to  the  Queen,  and  brotherly 
charity  one  to  another.  Finally,  let  us  praise  God 
for  all  those  which  are  departed  out  of  this  life  in 
the  faith  of  Christ,  and  pray  unto  God  that  we 
may  have  grace  to  direct  our  lives  after  their  good 
example ;  that,  this  life  ended,  we  may  be  made 
partakers  with  them  of  the  glorious  resurrection  in 
the  life  everlasting. 
Our  Father,  &c. 

N.B.  Bead,  in  Chaucer  Bede,  A.  S.  Bed,=a  Prayer, 
connected  with  Bid,  of  uncertain  root  =  Pray.  Bid, 
probably  of  different  etymology,  also  =  command.  Bidding 
formerly  meant  both  "  command  "  and  "  Prayer,"  and  it  is 
probable  that  Bidding  Prayer  meant  "  Command  Prayer  " 
rather  than  "  Praying  Prayer."  The  small  perforated  balls 
called  "  beads "  are  so  named  from  having  been  used  in 
Prayer.  At  the  Prayer  before  the  Sermon  the  people  were 
"  bid "  to  pray  for  subject  after  subject  and  "  told "  or 
reckoned  their  "  beads  "  as  the  subjects  were  successively 
"  told "  off.  The  form  above  is  that  given  in  the  fifty- 
fifth  Canon  of  1604. 



I.  The  second  Collect  for  the  Ember2  season 
and  the  Collects  slightly  varied  in  the  Ordination 
Services,  speak  of  the  divers  Orders  3  in  the  Church 

1  The  word   Orders  is   derived  from   the   Latin   ordo 
(possibly    from     \/AR  =  rise,    go)  =  row,    series,    order. 
It  first  appears  in  Tertullian  (de  Exhort.  Cast,  vii)  in  the 
sense  of  Holy  Orders  :   "  The  authority  of  the  Church  has 
established  a  distinction  between  order  and  people."     It 
was  in  common  use  to  indicate  public  office ;  e.  g.  Ordo 
Mutinensis,  the    Senate    of  Modena,    Tac.    Hist.    ii.   52. 
The  Greek  equivalents  nigis  and  rd-ypn.  from  rarrw  =  set  in 
order,  had  a  similar  use  (cf.  Xen.  Mem.  ii.  i.  7  TT)I>  TO>V 
*ipXftv  /3<;vAo/if i/cof  Tagiv),  and  was  first,  like  ordo.  employed 
indifferently  of  any  estate  of  men  in  the  Church,  St.  Clement 
of  Rome  (§§  xl,  xli)  writing,  "  The  laity  are  bound  by  lay 
ordinances ;  let  each  one  of  you  brethren  offer  Eucharist 
to  God  in  his  own  '  Order.'  " 

The  common  name  clergy  is  from  clericus,  K\T]piKos,  of  or 
belonging  to  the  K\r]pos  =  lot  or  heritage,  and  so  the 
heritage  of  God.  Applied  originally  to  the  whole  Church, 
as  in  i  Pet.  v.  3,  it  was  soon  limited  to  the  ministry. 

2  i.  e.  the  ymb-ryn   or    round    running,  or  recurring 
seasons.       The    derivation    from    "  embers "    (ashes)    or 
quatember  is  wrong. 

3  The  seven  Orders  of  the  Church  of  Rome  are  Porter, 
Reader,   Exorcist,   Acolyte,   Sub-deacon,  Deacon,  Priest; 
Bishop  being  regarded  as  a  degi'ee  of  the  presbyterate 
and  not  a  distinct  Order  (Cat.  Cone.  Trident,  ii.  7,  25). 
For  the  pre-eminence  of   the    three  Orders  of   Bishops, 


as  appointed  by  Almighty  God,  of  His  divine  provi 
dence,  and  by  His  Holy  Spirit. 

II.  The  Preface  to  the  Ordinal  L  specifies  Orders 
which  have  existed  since  the  Apostles'  time  as 
Bishops,  Priests,  and  Deacons,  and  guards  against 
the  possibility  of  any  idea  of  the  starting  of  a  new 
ministry,  by  the  phrase  "  to  the  intent  that  these 
Orders  may  be  continued  2." 

Priests,  and  Deacons,  sometimes  marked  in  the  West 
as  distinctively  sacri  ordines,  cf.  Cann.  Apost.  i  and  2, 
and  Council  of  Nicaea,  c.  iii.  Restrictions  are  imposed 
on  a  Bishop,  a  Priest,  or  a  Deacon,  or  any  one  who  is  of 
the  clergy. 

1  Issued  in  1550;  see  note  thereon.     Incorporated  in 
3  &  4  Edw.  VI,  chap.   12,  5  &  6  Edw.  VI,  chap,  i,  and 
13  &  14  Car.  II,  chap.  4.     See  also  44  Geo.  Ill,  chap.  43. 

2  A    Necessary    Doctrine    and    Erudition    for    any 
Chrysten  Man,  commonly  called  the  King's   Book,  put 
out  in   1543,  describes  Order  as  "the  gyf't  or  grace   of 
mynistration  in  Christ's  Church,  given  of  God  to  Christen 
men  by  the  consecration  and  imposition  of  the  Bishop's 
hands.  ...  To  the  intent  that  by  ministers  duly  placed 
there  may  be  due  spirituall  fathers  for  spirituall   gene 
ration."     "  In  the  English  Ordination   Service   annexed 
to   the  First   Prayer   Book,  and    with    some    important 
changes  incorporated  in  our  present  book,  there  is  certainly 
nothing  like  a  wholesale  rejection  of  mediaeval  additions. 
Not  only  does  our  Ordinal  follow  ancient  precedent  in 
connecting  the  bestowal  of  Holy  Orders  with  the  celebra 
tion  of  the  Holy  Communion,  and  in  its  strict  adherence 
to   the    old   rule,   long    adopted    throughout   the  West, 
which  requires  the  presbyterate  to  join  with  the  Bishop  in 
the  laying  on  of  hands  upon  a  Priest,  and  three  Bishops  at 
least  to  take  part  in  the  consecration  of  a  Bishop  ;  not 
only  does  the  Anglican  Church  follow  the  example  of  the 
ancient    Roman    Church    in    limiting   the    ordination   of 
Deacons  and  Priests  to  the  four  annual  seasons  of  fasting 
and  prayer,  and  the  consecration  of  a  Bishop  to  Sundays 
or  holy  days ;  not  only  do  the  prayers  of  the  Ordination 
Service  rest  ultimately  on  the  ancient  forms ;  but  we  have 
retained  such  late  additions  as  the  Veni  Creator  and  the 


III.  Article  XXIII  says,  "  It  is  not  lawful l  for 
any   man  to  take  upon   him  the  office  of  public 
preaching,   or  ministering    the    Sacraments  to  the 
Congregation,  before  he  be  lawfully  called,  and  sent 
to  execute  the  same.     And  those  we  ought  to  judge 
lawfully  called  and  sent,  which  be  chosen  and  called 
to  this  work  by  men  who  have  publick  authority 
given    unto    them    in    the    Congregation     [Latin 
ecclesia],  to  call  and  send  Ministers  into  the  Lord's 

IV.  By  the  Preface  to  the  Ordinal  "men  who 
have  public  authority  given  unto  them  in  the  Con 
gregation  [or  Church],  to  call  or  send  Ministers  unto 
the  Lord's  vineyard,"  are  limited  to  the  Bishops, 
seeing  that  they  alone  are  recognized  as  entrusted 
with  the  duty  of  ordaining  2. 

V.  The   Preface   of   1550    ended   thus: — ';  It   is 
requisite  that  no  man  (not  being  at  this  present 
Bishop,  Priest,  or  Deacon)   shall   execute   any   of 
them,   except   he  be   called,   tried  and  examined, 
and    admitted,    according   to    the   form    hereafter 

In  1662  this  was  altered  to  : — ':  No  man  shall  be 
accounted  or  taken  to  be  a  lawful  Bishop,  Priest,  or 
Deacon  in  the  Church  of  England,  or  suffered  to 

Accipe  Spiritum  Sanctum,  and  the  delivery  of  a  book  as 
the  sign  of  office "  (Swete's  Services  and  Service  Books 
before  the  Reformation,  p.  207). 

1  Enforced  by  civil  statute   under  penalties  until  the 
passing  of  the  Toleration  Act,  i  Will.  &  Mary,  chap.  18. 

2  "  Presbyters,  though  they  be  sacer dotes,  nevertheless 
possess  not  the  crown  of  the  Pontificate.    It  is  the  special 
privilege  of  Pontiffs  (i.  e.  Bishops)  alone  that  they  either 
ordain  or  confer  the  Holy  Spirit  (i.e.  administer  confirma 
tion)"    (St.  Isidore,   circa  A.  D.   620,  de  Ecc.  Off.  ii.   7; 
cf.  Gore,  The  Church  and  the  Ministry,  pp.  115  n.,  181). 



execute  any  of  the  said  functions,  except  he  be 
called,  tried,  examined,  and  admitted  thereunto, 
according  to  the  form  hereafter  following,  or 
hath  had  formerly  episcopal  consecration  or  ordi 

The  law  of  the  Church  of  England,  therefore, 
recognizes  the  Orders,  and,  subject  to  certain  con 
ditions  and  statutory  provisions1,  allows  the  minis 
trations  of,  Bishops,  Priests,  and  Deacons,  conse 
crated  and  ordained  in  the  Churches  of  Ireland, 
Scotland,  the  Colonies,  America,  Rome,  and  the  East. 

The  episcopal  succession  is  also  found  with  the 
Jansenists  and  Old  Catholics.  On  the  Church  of 
Sweden  and  the  Moravians  the  Report  of  the 
Lambeth  Conference  of  1897  may  be  consulted. 
The  Churches  of  Denmark,  Norway,  and  the  so- 
called  Methodist  Episcopal  Church  of  America 
use  the  name  "Bishop"  of  ministers  not  episco- 
pally  ordained. 

The  ordinations  in  Presbyterian  and  other 
non-episcopal  communities  at  home  and  abroad 
do  not  qualify  their  ministers  either  ecclesiastically 
or  legally  to  take  part  in  the  ministrations  of  the 
Church  of  England. 

Luther's  view  of  the  ministry,  more  or  less 
adopted  by  several  sects  since  his  time,  was  that 
it  is  merely  a  subordinate  matter  of  Church 
organization,  to  be  started  or  modified  as  need 
may  require.  Cf.  Luther's  Address  to  the  Nobility 
of  the  German  Nation,  Luther's  Primary  Works, 
ed.  Wace,  1896,  p.  164. 

1  Vide  37  &  38  Victoria,  chap.  77,  and  27  &  28  Victoria, 
chap.  94.  See  also  Blunt  and  Pliilliinoi  e,  Church  Law, 
p.  191. 


The  Presbyterian  view  is  strict  as  to  a  succession 
of  ministers  ordained  by  Presbyters. 

Up  to  1 747  Wesley  admitted  the  historic  position. 
'•There  is,  and  always  was,  in  every  Christian 
Church  an  outward  priesthood,  ordained  by  Jesus 
Christ,  and  an  outward  sacrifice  offered  by  author 
ized  stewards  of  the  divine  mysteries "  ( Wesley's 
Journal,  Dec.  27,  1745).  "The  three  Orders  are 
plainly  described  in  the  New  Testament,  and  they 
generally  obtained  in  the  Churches  of  the  Apostolic 
age"  (Minutes  of  Conference,  1747). 

VI.  Article  XXV  excludes  Orders  from  the 
category  of  Sacraments J  "  ordained  of  Christ  in  the 
Gospel,"  and  denies  it  to  have  ';any  visible  sign  or 
ceremony  ordained  of  God,"  in  that  Scripture  cori- 

1  The  Homily  "  of  Common  Prayer  and  Sacraments," 
however,  says,  "  As  for  the  number  of  them,  if  they  should 
be  considered  according  to  the  exact  signification  of 
a  Sacrament,  viz.  for  the  visible  signs  expressly  t-om- 
manded  in  the  New  Testament,  whereunto  is  awarded 
the  promise  of  free  forgiveness  of  our  sin,  and  of  our 
holiness  and  joining  in  Christ,  there  be  but  two,  namely, 
Baptism  and  the  Supper  of  the  Lord.  For  although 
Absolution  hath  the  promise  of  forgiveness  of  sin  ;  yet  by 
the  expiess  word  of  the  New  Testament  it  hath  not  this 
promise  annexed  and  tied  to  the  visible  sign,  which  is 
imposition  of  hands.  For  this  visible  sign  (I  mean  laying 
on  of  hands)  is  not  expressly  commanded  in  the  New 
Testament  to  be  used  in  Absolution,  as  the  visible  sign 
in  Baptism  and  the  Lord's  Supper  are;  and,  therefore, 
Absolution  is  no  such  Sacrament  as  Baptism  and  the 
Communion  are.  And  though  the  Ordering  of  Ministers 
hath  this  visible  sign  and  promise  ;  yet  it  lacks  the  promise 
of  remission  of  sin,  as  all  other  Sacraments  besides  the 
two  above-named  do.  Therefore  neither  it  nor  any  other 
Sacrament  else,  be  such  Sacraments  as  Baptism  and  the 
Communion  are."  Cf.  the  arrangement  of  the  Title  of 
the  Book  of  Common  Prayer. 

t  B  2 


tains  no  record  of  the  imposition  of  hands  being 
the  outward  sign  appointed  by  our  Lord,  nor  can 
it  be  said  to  be  '  generally  necessary  to  salvation  " 
in  the  sense  in  which  Baptism  and  the  Eucharist 
are  generally  necessary. 

VII.  Article  XXXVI  asserts  that  the  Ordinal 
contains  all  things  necessary  to  "  Consecration 
and  Ordering  "  (Consecration  of  Archbishops  and 
Bishops,  and  Ordering  of  Priests  and  Deacons),  and 
denies  that  the  Ordinal  contains  anything  that  of 
itself  is  "  superstitious  or  ungodly." 

It  therefore  deals  with  two  classes  of  depreciators  : 
(L)  the  Roman  or  mediaevalist ;  (2)  the  Puritan  or 

(i)  Roman  or  mediaevalist  objections  were  not 
in  many  cases  held  of  sufficient  force,  during  the 
submission  of  the  realm  under  Mary  I  to  the  Papacy, 
to  vitiate  Orders  conferred  with  the  Edwardine 
Ordinal1.  Nor  have  they  been  judged  weighty  by 
foreign  scholars  like  Bossuet  (Le  Courayer,  Preuves 
Just,  i.),  Dollinger  (Bonn  Conference,  1874,  p.  71), 
and  more  recently  Duchesne  (Bulletin  Critique, 
July  15,  1894,  p.  262).  Notice  has,  however,  been 
lately  attracted  to  them  by  the  issue  from  Rome  of 
the  Bull  Apostolicae  Curae  (dated  the  Ides  of  Sep 
tember,  1896),  in  which  the  points  wherein  the 
English  Ordinal  is  said  to  be  defective  are  (a)  form, 
and  (/3)  intention.  The  matter  or  outward  sign  of 
imposition  of  hands  being  retained,  the  form  or 
words  used  are,  it  is  urged,  insufficient,  because 
the  offices  of  Priest  and  Bishop  have  not,  through 
the  changes  of  the  English  Liturgy,  been  explicitly 
mentioned.  "T}o  this  it  is  enough  to  reply,  (i)  that 

1  See  The  Marian  Reaction,  Ch.  Hist.  Soc.  xviii.  p.  126. 


the  distinct  Orders  intended  to  be  conveyed  have 
always  been  mentioned  in  some  part  of  the  office, 
and  that  (2)  the  specifying  words  are  not  found  in 
the  form  accompanying-  the  imposition  of  hands  in 
episcopal  ordination  in  the  Roman  Pontifical l. 

(/3)  As  to  intention.  The  Preface  to  the  Ordinal 
sufficiently  indicates  that  the  "  intent "  of  the  ser 
vices  is  to  "  continue  "  in  "  the  Church  of  England  " 
the  same  Orders  which  have  obtained  in  it  all  along, 
and  to  confer,  when  required  to  be  conferred,  the 
genuine  "  Office  of  Priesthood  "  and  the  privilege  of 
offering  on  behalf  of  the  congregation  the  proper 
Eucharistic  sacrifice.  (Of.  Answer  of  the  Arch 
bishops  of  England  to  Pope  Leo  XIII,  §  xi.) 

On  any  defect  arguable  from  the  discontinuance 
of  the  picturesque  and  graceful  rite  of  "  the  porrec- 
tion  of  the  instruments  "  or  delivery  of  the  paten 
and  chalice,  it  is  to  be  noticed  that  the  rite  is  com 
paratively  modern ;  it  does  not  appear  in  the  earliest 
known  English  Pontifical2,  that  of  Archbishop 

1  On  various  early  forms  of  ordination,  illustrating  the 
non-rigidity  of  ancient  Catholic  usage,  see  Notes  on  the 
Forms  of  Ordination,  pp.  78,  79. 

2  A  Pontifical  is  the  book  containing  offices  to  be  per 
formed    by    a    Pontifex,    or   Bishop.      The    Latin    name 
Pontifex  (derived  either  from  pons  and  /ac?o  =  path  or 
bridge  maker  \Varro]  or  Pompa  and  facio),  cf.  Daniel, 
P.  Book,  p.  15,  first  appears  in  Tertullian  (De  Pudicitia, 
c.  i).     Hilary  of  Aries  is  Summus  Pontifex  in  Eucherius 
(Migne,  1.    773).     Other   early  Pontificals    are  those    of 
Archbishop  Dunstan  (957-988)  at  Paris,  and  Ethelwold 
of  Winchester   (963-984).     There    is    now  no   complete 
English  Pontifical.     The  offices  for  Confirmation  and  the 
Ordinal  are  incorporated  in  the  Book  of  Common  Prayer, 
but  those  for  the  Coronation  Service  and  the  Consecration 
of  Churches  and  Cemeteries  are  not.     Cf.  Swete,  Services 
and  Service  Books  before  the  Reformation,  pp.  195-223. 


Egbert  of  York  in  the  Paris  Library  (A.  D.  732-766), 
or  in  the  early  Missale  Francorum  preserved  in  the 
Cod.  Vat.  apud  Muratori. 

It  may  have  arisen  from  the  natural  custom  of 
giving  to  the  recipients  of  minor  "  Orders ]  "  which 
were  not,  strictly  speaking,  "  Orders  "  at  all,  some 
insignia  of  office,  e.  g.  the  Porter,  a  key  ;  the  Reader, 
a  book  ;  the  Acolyte,  a  candlestick  and  candle, 
because  it  was  his  business  to  light  the  candles  in 
the  church,  and  a  pitcher,  because  he  had  to  see 
to  the  supply  of  wine  for  the  Eucharist ;  the  Sub- 
deacon,  an  empty  chalice  and  paten,  and  an  ewer 
and  towel,  because  he  had  to  wash  the  Bishop's 
hands.  So  even  a  Deacon  who  was  "  ordained  "  by 
imposition  of  hands,  in  southern  countries  received 
a  fan,because  he  would  keep  flies  from  the  oblations. 
Or  it  may  rather  have  grown  from  the  Roman 
custom  (Mabillon,  Ordo  ix.  3  ;  Migne,  Ixxviii.  1005) 
that,  after  an  ordination,  the  Bishop  should  give 
the  newly  ordained  Priest  vestments  and  the  sacred 
vessels,  with  wine,  corn,  and  oil,  and  take  him  in 
state  to  his  parish.  About  the  twelfth  century  the 
"  porrection  "  came  to  be  regarded  as  the  essential  of 
ordination,  and  in  the  fifteenth,  Pope  Eugenius  IV, 
in  his  Decretwm  ad  Armenos  (A.D.  1439),  committed 
himself  to  the  curious  theory  that  it,  with  the  form, 
constituted  ordination. 

(a)  Puritan  and  non-catholic  objections.  The 
objections  of  the  extreme  Puritans  naturally  ex 
tended  to  the  Ordinal  in  toto.  They  objected  to 
episcopacy,  to  the  term  Priest,  understanding  it  in 

1  After  the  thirteenth  century,  in  the  W.  the  sub- 
diaconate  was  reckoned  among  the  sacri  or  majores 
ordines.  Of.  D.  C.  A.  ii.  1475. 


its  popular  and  narrower  sense  as  connoting  some 
thing  more  than  its  doublet  Presbyter.  They  ob 
jected  to  any  restriction  of  the  ministry  of  the  Word 
and  Sacraments  to  officers  episcopally  ordained. 
Yet  at  the  Hampton  Court  Conference  in  1604,  and 
at  the  Savoy  in  1661,  the  Ordinal  was  not  one  of 
the  points  most  prominently  attacked. 

In  view  of  objections  to  the  use  of  formula, 
"  Receive  the  Holy  Ghost,"  it  may  be  noted  that 
the  universal  belief  of  Christendom  has  been  that 
ministerial  authority  proceeds  from  the  Holy  Ghost, 
and  that  the  right  to  exercise  it  is  of  the  nature  of 
a  yja.pi(Tna  (n  Tim.  i.  6).  The  quotation  and  appli 
cation  of  our  Lord's  words  (•  Whose  soever  sins/  &c., 
St.  John  xx.  23)  spoken  collectively  to  the  assembled 
Church l  on  the  evening  of  the  day  of  the  Resurrec 
tion  fitly  recall  and  individualize  His  charge.  They 
are,  however,  a  comparatively  modern  addition  to 
the  Ordinal,  and  are  not  in  themselves  essential  to 
ordination.  Cf.  pp.  78,  80. 

1  "  The  act  is  described  as  one  (eW^uo-^o-f)  and  not 
repeated.  The  gift  was  once  for  all,  not  to  indi 
viduals,  but  to  the  abiding  body"  (Bishop  Westcott  on 
St.  John  xx). 







1.   The  Form  and  Manner. 

At  the  time  of  the  issue  of  the  First  Prayer  Book  of 
Edward  VI  the  ancient  Pontificals  were  in  use.  A  com 
mission,  of  which  Archbishop  Cranmer  was  the  prominent 
member,  published  early  in  1550  "  The  Forme  and  maner 
of  makyng  and  consecratyng  of  Archbishoppes,  Bishoppes, 
Priestes,  and  Deacons,"  which  is  the  first  Ordinal  in 
English.  There  are  three  copies  in  the  Library  of  the 
British  Museum  and  a  reprint  in  The  First  Prayer  Book 
of  Edward  VI  (Parker,  1877).  The  chief  variations  from 
later  Ordinals  are  the  following:  — 

(«)  "  None  shall  be  admitted  a  Deacon  except  he  be 
twenty-one  years  at  the  least." 

(&)  Of  Priests  and  Deacons,  "  Every  one  of  them  that 
are  presented  having  upon  him  a  plain  '  albe  ' "  (i.  e. 
a  closely  fitting  white  tunic,  girded). 

(c)  The  Rubric  before  the  Gospel  is,  "  Then  one  of  them 
appointed  by  the  Bishop,  putting  on  a  tunicle  "  (a  scantier 
dalmatic  ;  the  mediaeval  vestment  of  the  Sub-deacon).    Cf. 
note  13,  p.  33. 

(d)  As  the  Introit  to  the  Communion,  in  the  Order  of 
Priests,  a  Rubric  orders  Ps.  xl,  or  else  Ps.  cxxxii,  or  else 
Ps.  cxxxv. 


(e]  The  version  of  the  Veni  Creator,  introduced  after 
the  Gospel,  contains  in  the  fourth  stanza  the  line — 

•'  Strengthen  and  stablish  all  our  weakness,  so  feeble 

and  so  frail ;  " 
and  in  the  sixth  runs — 

"That  thou,  Lord,  mayst  be  our  comfort  at  the  last 
dreadful  day." 

(/)  The  direction  after  the  imposition  of  hands  on 
Priests  ran  : 

"  The  Bishop  shall  deliver  to  every  one  of  them  the 
Bible  in  the  one  hand,  and  the  chalice  or  cup,  with 
the  bread,  in  the  other,  and  say,  Take  thou  authority  to 
preach  the  word  of  God,  and  to  minister  the  Holy 
Sacraments  in  this  congregation." 

The  "  Form "  was  mainly  based  upon  the  Sarum 
Pontifical.  The  oldest  extant  authorities  on  the  Hite 
of  Ordination  in  the  Latin  Church  are — 

(a)  Statuta  Ecdesiae  Antigua,  a  collection  of  disciplinary 
and  liturgical  canons  formed  in  Gaul,  in  the  province  of 
Aries,  in  the  sixth  century. 

(b)  Of  Roman  Sacramentaries,  those  of  Leo  I  (1461) 
and  of  Hadrian  I  (t  795).     These  show  the  same  prayers 
for  the  ordination  of  Deacons,  Priests,  and  Bishops,  and 
make   no   mention    of  the    minor    Orders.     Hence  it  is 
inferred  that  for  the  minor  Orders  there  was  at  Rome 
originally  no  ceremonial  ordination.     Cf.  Duchesne,  Ori- 
gines  du  Culte  ChretifM,  pp.  337,  339. 

The  oldest  extant  English  Pontifical,  that  of  Egbert  of 
York  (732-766)  in  the  Bibliotheque  Rationale  at  Paris, 
does  contain  directions  for  Sub-deacons  and  other  minor 

The  oldest  rites  in  connexion  with  ordinations  were 
(i)  prayer,  (2)  the  imposition  of  hands,  and  later  (3)  the 
delivery  of  the  insignia  of  office.  Cf.  pp.  78,  79,  80. 

The  "Form"  of  1550  was  modified  as  has  been  in 
dicated  in  1552,  and  again  in  1662. 

The  modern  Roman  Pontifical,  that  of  Pope  Clement  VIII, 
dates  from  1596. 



IT  is  evident 
unto  all  men  diligently  reading  the  holy  Scripture  (2) 

2.   Holy  Scripture. 

(a)  BISHOPS  (" Bishop "=eVtWo7roy,  Greek  for  "Over 
seer").    At  first  the  supreme  authority  in  the  Church  was 
vested  in  the  Apostles,  and  the  titles  of  Priest  and  Bishop 
were  both  used  of  the  second  Order.     St.  James  the  Just 
at  Jerusalem  (Acts  xii.  17,  xv.  13,  xxi.  18),  SS.  Timothy 
and  Titus  at  Ephesus  and  Crete,  are  the  earliest  instances 
of  priests  appointed  to  exercise  episcopal  authority  over 
other  priests  (i  Tim.  i.  3,  4,  v.  17-22;  2  Tim.  ii.  2;  Tit.  i.  5, 
ii.  i  sqq.,  iii.  10).     Probably  this  was  the  position  of  Epa- 
phroditus  at  Philippi  (Phil.  ii.  25),  of  Archippus  at  Colossae 
(Col.   iv.   17;    Philem.    2 \  and   of  the  "  Angels "  of  the 
Churches  of  Asia  Minor  (cf.  (Ecumenius  on  Apoc.  ii.  i). 

(b)  On  PKIESTS  ("Priest"  is  a  contraction  of  Pres 
byter,  from  irpfa-pvTepos,  comp.  of  7rpeV/3vr,  where  the  Trpeo- 
=  Ijat.pris  in  prisons,  meaning  "old"  :  the  -fivs  is  doubt 
ful)   in   the  Church    of   Jerusalem  cf.  Acts  xi.   30,   and 
xv.  4,  6,  23.     On  their  ordination  for  Gentile  Churches 
cf.  Acts  xiv.  23,  and  xx.  17.     The  seventy  (Luke  x.  i) 
may  have  originated  a  lower  Apostolate  (cf.  Jer.  Taylor, 
v.  24,    ed.   1859).     Priests  were   ordained  by  Apostles 
(Acts  xiv.  23)  and  subsequently  by  their  delegates  (i  Tim. 
v.  22).     They  aided  in  the  ordination  of  other  Priests 
(i  Tim.  iv.  14). 

(c)  DEACONS  (from  Greek  SIOKOVOS  =  "  Minister  ")  were 
first  elected  by  the  congregation  and  ordained  by  the 
Apostles  (Acts  vi.  1-6). 

N.B. — Thus  the  three  Orders  in  Holy  Scripture  appear 
mainly  as  Apostles,  Priest-bishops,  and  Deacons;  the 
original  Apostolate  beginning  to  disappear,  as  in  the  case 
of  the  martyred  St.  James  the  Great,  and  some  Priest- 
bishops  beginning  to  be  ordained  to  discharge  episcopal 
functions  (e.g.  to  ordain)  and  exercise  authority  over 
others  as  they  received  apostolic  commission  so  to  do. 
All  three  Orders,  of  course,  retained  each  with  its  special 


and  ancient  Authors  (3),  that  from  the  Apostles' 

character,  the  "hieratic"  character  (cf.  St.  Basil,  Ep. 
237),  for  which  the  English  tongue  has  no  distinctive 
name,  common  to  the  whole  Church,  both  clergy  and  laity 
(Rev.  i.  6,  v.  10;  i  Pet.  ii.  v.  9),  though  some  sacred 
duties,  specially  belonging  to  the  ministry  of  the  word  and 
sacraments,  have  been  from  the  beginning  confined  to 
the  three  Holy  Orders ;  and  the  representative  functions 
of  pronouncing  absolution  and  offering  the  Holy  Eucharist 
to  the  two  higher  (cf.  Ignatius,  t  c.  no,  Troll,  iii,  Justin 
Martyr,  t  c.  160,  Apol.  Major,  85,  87,  and  Cyprian,  t  258, 
Epp.  33  and  73). 

3.  Ancient  Authors. 

(a)  Clement,  Bishop  of  Rome,  died  A.  D.  i  oo.  St.  Clement 
in  his  Epistle  to  the  Corinthians  (written  c.  A.D.  95)  still 
speaks  of  Apostles,  bishops,  and  deacons,  using  the  analogy 
of  the  Jewish  High  Priest,  Priest  and  Levites.  He  is 
strong  on  ecclesiastical  order  :  "Let  each  of  you,  brethren, 
being  in  a  good  conscience,  offer  his  Eucharist  to  God  in 
his  own  order,  not  transgressing  the  defined  rule  of  his 
service,  in  reverence"  (§  xli).  The  Apostles  were  sent 
out  by  Christ  and  "  they  ordained  their  first  fruits,  after 
trying  them  by  the  Spirit,  to  be  bishops  and  deacons  of 
future  believers  "  (§  xlii).  With  "  this  work  "  of  ordina 
tion  they  had  "  in  Christ  been  entrusted  by  God  "  (§  xliii). 
"  They  knew  through  our  Lord  Jesus  Christ  that  there 
would  be  contention  about  the  Episcopate ;  for  this  cause, 
therefore,  having  received,"  i.e.  from  the  Lord,  "complete 
foreknowledge,  they  ordained  the  aforesaid,  and  afterwards 
have  established  a  perpetuity,  so  that,  if  they  should  fall 
asleep,  other  approved  men  should  in  succession  take  their 
office."  It  is  not  right  that  exclusion  from  the  ministry 
should  be  suffered  by  ministers  "ordained  by  them,"  i.e. 
the  Apostles,  "  or  afterwards  by  other  notable  men,  with 
the  consent  of  the  whole  church  "  (§  xliv).  St.  Clement, 
then,  who  was  a  contemporary  with,  and  had  met 
St.  Peter,  St.  Paul,  and  St.  John  (Iren.  iii),  writes  that 
(i)  the  Apostles  had  received  from  the  Lord  information 
as  to  the  government  and  ministry  of  the  Church,  and 
that  (ii)  they  acted  on  His  commands  in  providing  for 
the  ordination  by  other  notable  men  of  a  succession  of 
the  two  Orders. 


time  there  have  been  these  Orders  of  Ministers 
in  Christ's  Church  ;  Bishops,  Priests,  and  Deacons. 
Which  Offices  were  evermore  had  in  such  reverend 
Estimation,  that  no  man  might  presume  to 
execute  any  of  them,  except  he  were  first  called, 

(b)  In  Ignatius,  Bishop  of  Antioch  (martyred  c.  A.D. 
no)  St.  Clement's  succession  appears  in  definite  operation. 
"  The  Bishop  and  the  Priests  and  Deacons  with  him  ap 
pointed  according  to  the  mind  of  Jesus  Christ,  whom  in 
conformity  with   His    own   mind  He   confirmed   in   sure 
establishment  by  His  Holy  Spirit"  (ad  Philad.  Inscr.}. 

(c)  Irenaeus,  Bishop  of  Lyons  (t  c.  200),  adv.  Haer. 
iii.  3,  takes  up  the  evidence  :  "  We  can  reckon  those  who 
were  appointed  Bishops  in  the  Churches  by  the  Apostles, 
and  their  successors,  down  to  our  own  time,"  and  (adv. 
Haer.  i.  27):   "  Hyginus  holding  the  ninth  place  of  epis 
copal  succession  from  the  Apostles." 

(d)  Tertullian,  t  240  (de  Sapt.  17):  "The  right  of 
giving  Baptism  lies  with  the  chief  Priest  (Sacerdos),  i.e. 
the  Bishop,  and  after  him  with  the  Presbyters  and  Deacons, 
but  not  without  the  Bishop's  authority,"  and  "  It  is  there 
fore  for  them  (sc.  the  heretics)  to  publish  the  origin  of 
their  Churches  :  it  is  for  them  to  display  the  roll  of  their 
bishops,  a  roll  so  following  its  course  from  the  beginning 
that  their  first  bishop  had  as  maker  and  predecessor  some 
one  either  of  the  Apostles  or  of  apostolic  men,  who  never 
theless  continued  steadfastly  with  the  Apostles.     Thus  it 
is  that  Apostolic  Churches  hand  down  their  registers ;  as 
that  of  the  Smyrnaeans  recalls   Polycarp    appointed  by 
John;  as  that  of  the  Romans,  Clement  ordained  in  like 
manner  by  Peter,  just  as  all  the  rest  show  forth  their 
having  transmitters  of  the  Apostolic  seed  appointed  to  the 
Episcopate  by  the  Apostles  "  (de  Praescript.  Haeret.  xxxii). 

(e)  Athanasius,  t373:    "The   order   the  Lord    has 
established  by  the  Apostles  abides  fair  and  firm"  (Ep. 
xlix.  3). 

(f)  Augustine,  t  430  writes  (Ep.  ccxxxii):  "  The  root 
tree  of  the  Christian  Society,  surely  propagated  through 
out  the  world  by  means  of  Apostles'  sees  and  Bishops' 


tried,  examined  (4),  and  known  to  have  such 
qualities  as  are  requisite  for  the  same;  and  also 
by  publick  Prayer,  with  Imposition  of  Hands, 
were  approved  and  admitted  thereunto  by  lawful 
Authority.  And  therefore,  to  the  intent  that  these 
Orders  may  be  continued,  and  reverently  used  and 
esteemed,  in  the  Church  of  England,  no  man 
shall  be  accounted  or  taken  to  be  a  lawful  Bishop, 
Priest,  or  Deacon  in  the  Church  of  England,  or 
suffered  to  execute  any  of  the  said  Functions, 
except  he  be  called,  tried,  examined,  and  admitted 
thereunto,  according  to  the  Form  hereafter  fol 
lowing,  or  hath  had  formerly  Episcopal  Consecra 
tion,  or  Ordination. 

And  none  shall  be  admitted  a  Deacon,  except  he 
be  Twenty- three  years  of  age  (5),  unless  he  have 

4.  Tried,  examined.     Cf.  Council  of  Sardica  (A.  D.  343) 
ex.  (Labbe,  ii.  636  B). 

"  And  in  the  case  of  each  Order  the  grade  shall  have 
a  period  of  time,  and  that  obviously  not  a  very  short  one, 
whereby  it  shall  be  possible  for  the  faith  of  the  candidate, 
the  high  excellence  of  his  character,  his  firmness  and  his 
fairness  to  be  made  generally  known,  and  that  he  may 
enjoy  this  high  honour  after  being  reckoned  worthy  of  the 
divine  and  sacred  office.  For  it  is  alike  unbecoming,  and 
inconsistent  with  knowledge  and  good  conversation  to 
take  this  step  rashly  and  lightly,  so  as  in  the  case 
of  either  Bishop,  Priest,  or  Deacon  to  make  a  hurried 

5.  Of  age.    The  age  has  varied  at  different  periods  and 
places.     The  earliest  positive  enactment  as  to  the  Pres- 
byterate  was  that  of  the  Council  of  Neocaesarea  (A.D.  314), 
c.  xi,  that  the  candidate  must  be  thirty.     Pope  Zachary 
allowed  Boniface  in  751  to  ordain  presbyters  at  twenty- 
five    (S.   Zach.  Ep.  xiii).     So  the   Council  of   Ravenna, 
A.D.    1314,    and    the    modern    Roman    Pontifical.       The 
earliest   age    for    deacons  was  twenty-five    (Cod.  Eccles. 


a  Faculty.  And  every  man  which  is  to  be  ad 
mitted  a  Priest  shall  be  full  Four-and-twenty 
years  old.  And  every  man  -which  is  to  be  ordained 
or  consecrated  Bishop  shall  be  fully  Thirty  years 
of  age. 

And  the  Bishop,  knowing  either  by  himself,  or 
by  sufficient  testimony,  any  Person  to  be  a  man 
of  virtuous  conversation,  and  without  crime ;  and. 
after  examination  and  trial,  finding  him  learned  in 
the  Latin  Tongue  (6),  and  sufficiently  instructed 
in  holy  Scripture,  may  at  the  times  appointed  in 
the  Canon,  or  else,  on  urgent  occasion,  upon  some 
other  Sunday  or  Holy-day,  in  the  face  of  the 
Church  (7),  admit  him  a  Deacon,  in  such  manner 
and  form  as  hereafter  folio weth. 

Afr.  Can.  xvi).  The  age  fixed  for  the  Diaconate  in  the 
English  Ordinal  of  1550  was  twenty-one,  that  for  the 
Presbyterate  and  Episcopate  being  as  now  twenty-four 
and  thirty.  Twenty-three  appears  for  the  Diaconate  in 
the  Canon  of  1604. 

6.  Learned  in  the  Latin  tongue.     Greek  scholarship  was 
yet  practically  unrevived  in  the  middle  of  the  sixteenth 
century.     It  is  at  least  as  important  that  a  candidate  for 
Holy  Orders  be  learned  in  Greek  as  in  Latin,  and  no  one 
can  be  deemed  "  sufficiently  instructed  "  in  Holy  Scripture 
unless  he  be  acquainted  with  it. 

7.  In  the  face  of  the  Church.     "  Let  no  ordination  take 
place  in  secret."     Let  it  take  place  "  with  the  approval  of 
clerics  of  genuine  orthodoxy,  so  that  there  be  no  oppor 
tunity   for    fraud,"    Theophilus    of    Alexandria,    t  412, 
Can.  VI. 




N-B. — The  portions  of  the  service  to  be  used  at  the  Ordination 
of  Priests  are  indicated  by  a  line  in  the  margin;  portions  common 
to  both  services  by  a  double  line. 

IT  When  the  day  appointed  by  the  Bishop  is  come,  after  Morning 
Prayer  is  ended,  there  shall  be  a  Sermon  or  Exhortation  (8), 
declaring  the  Duty  and  Office  of  such  as  come  to  be  admitted 
Deacons  [or]  Priests;  how  necessary  that  Order  is,  [or  those 
Orders  are]  in  the  Church  of  Christ  (9),  and  also,  how  the  people 
ought  to  esteem  them  in  their  Office  (10). 

8.  Sermon  or  Exhortation. 

"  When  all  are  present  before  the  Bishop,  let  either 
the  Bishop  himself  or  the  Archdeacon  make  a  discourse 
suitable  to  the  occasion"  (Pontifical  of  Tours,  ed. 
Martene,  ii.  61). 

9.  How  necessary  thdse  Orders  are  in  the  Church  of  Christ. 
"  Be   zealous    to    do    all    things    in   godly   concord,    the 
Bishop   presiding    after   the    likeness    of   God,    and    the 
Presbyters  after  the  likeness  of  the  Council  of  the  Apostles, 
with  the  Deacons  also  who  are  right  dear  to  me  and  are 
entrusted  with  the  Ministry  (8inicoi>ia)  of  Jesus  Christ " 
(Ignatius  to  the  Magnesians,  vi).     "  Whence  did  Ischyras 
get  his  Orders  ?    Who  ordained  him  1     Colluthus  1     This 
is  the  only  possible  hypothesis.     But  it  is  notorious  that 
Colluthus  died  a  Presbyter,  and  that  every  ordination  of 
his  is  invalid,  and  that  all   ordained  by  him  in  schism 
are  laymen  "  (Athanasius,  Apol.  c.  Arian.  xii).      "  Follow 
the  way  of  Catholic  discipline,  which  from  Christ  Him 
self  through  His  Apostles  has  flowed  without  break  to  us, 
and  shall  continue  to  follow  from  us  to  those  that  come 
after  us  "  (Augustine,  de  Util.  Cred.  c.  viii). 

10.  How  the  people  ought  to  esteem  them  in  their  Office. 


TI  First  the  Archdeacon,  or    his  Deputy,  sliall  present  unto    the 
Bishop  (sitting  in  his  chair  (11)  near  to  the  holy 

"  The  express  precepts  of  God  in  Scripture  are  written 
in  great  characters;  there  is  a  .  '  double  honour'  to  be 
given  to  ecclesiastical  i  ulers,  '  rulers '  that  also  '  labour 
in  the  word  and  doctrine ' ;  there  is  '  obedience '  due  to 
them,  '  obedience  in  all  things,'  and  estimation,  and  love, 
vTTfp  tK  Trfpiaaov,  '  very  abundantly ' ;  '  esteem  such  very 
highly  fur  their  work's  sake  ' ;  a  '  communicating  to  them 
in  all  good  things  '  ;  and  their  offices  are  described  to  be 
great,  separate,  busy,  eminent,  and  profitable ;  they  are 
'  rulers,'  '  presidents,'  '  set  over  us  in  the  Lord,'  '  taking 
care  for  us,'  'labouring  in  doctrine,'  'spiritual  persons,' 
'  restorers  of  them  that  were  overtaken  in  a  fault,' 
'  curates  of  souls '  such  as  '  must  give  account  for  them,' 
the  '  salt,'  the  '  light  of  the  word/  '  shepherds,'  and  much 
more,  signifying  work,  and  rule,  and  care,  and  honour. 
But  next  to  the  words  of  Scripture  there  can  be  no  more 
said  concerning  the  honour  of  the  sacred  order  of  the 
clergy  than  is  said  by  St.  Chrysostom  in  his  book  De 
Sacerdotio,  and  St.  Ambrose  De  dignitate  Sacerdotali  ; 
and  no  greater  thing  can  be  supported  by  God,  com 
municated  to  man,  than  to  be  the  '  minister  of  God '  in 
the  great  conveyances  of  grace,  and  instruments  of  God 
in  the  pardon  of  sins,  in  the  consecration  of  Christ's 
Body  and  Blood,  in  the  guidance  and  conduct  of  souls." 
Bishop  Jeremy  Taylor  in  The  Divine  Institution  of  the 
Office  Ministerial,  §  5. 

11.  Sitting  in  his  chair. 

So  in  the  York  Pontifical  of  Archbishop  Bainbridge, 
1508-1514  "Episcopus  sedens  interrogat."  In  the  Exeter 
Pontifical  of  the  fourteenth  century  (ed.  Barnes,  1847, 
pp.  84,  85,  "Episcopus  sedens"  addresses  the  ordiuauds) : 
then  the  rubric  for  the  Imposition  of  hands  on  Deacons  is 
"  tune  surgeus  Episcopus." 

So  apparently  the  Sarum  Pont.  (Maskell,  Mon.  Rit. 
ii.  p.  205).  In  the  Roman  Pont,  at  the  presentation, 
"  Pontifex  sedens  in  faldistorio." 

In  the  Greek  Church  the  Bishop  sits  in  front  of  the 
Altar,  but  to  the  left  of  it,  that  he  may  not  turn  his  back 
upon  the  Holy  Sacrament. 


Table  (12) )  such  as  desire  to  be  ordained  Deacons,  (each  of  them 
being  decently  habited  (13),)  saying  these  words, 

Keverend  Father  in  God  (14),  I  present  unto  you 
these  persons  present,  to  be  admitted  Deacons. 

12.  The  Holy  Table.     The  word  Altar,  removed  from 
the  Reformed  Liturgy  in  1552,  was  sanctioned  by  Con 
vocation  in  1640,  and  appears  in  the  Coronation  Office. 
The  Scriptural  term  Table  (i  Cor.  x.  21)  is  frequent  in 
Greek  Liturgies  (e.  g.  St.  James,  "  sacred  and   spiritual 
Table"),  St.  Mark  "All  holy  Table,"  and  in  the  Greek 

N.B. — Altare=High  Place  \/AK=raise. 

Table = Spread  Place  V'TA= stretch. 

Tpdfre  fa  =  Fourfooted. 

Ecop.6s  (vABA  =  go)  is  generally  used  for  heathen  altars 
(e.g.  i  Maccab.  i.  54),  and  so  Ara  (Sansk.  AS  =  " where 
the  victim  rests  ")  equivalent  of^w/xoy  in  LXX.  (e.g.  Min. 
Felix,  Octavius,  xxxii,  "  aras  non  habemus  ").  Svo-taorqptoj/, 
i.  e.  place  of  the  Qva-la,  offering  whether  bloody  or  un 
bloody,  has  a  wider  application  (e.g.  Matt.  v.  24;  Heb. 
xiii.  10;  Ignat.  Phil,  iv;  Polyc.  Phil,  iv),  cf.  B.C. A.  i.  61. 

13.  Decently  habited.     The  Order  of  1550  was  that 
each  candidate    should   wear    "  a  plain    albe,"   and   the 
Gospeller  a  "  tunicle,"  i.e.  the  "  tunicella  "  dim.  of  tunica, 
a  dalmatic,  or  short  upper  garment,  with  short  sleeves, 
worn  over  the  alb  from  the  eighth  century  in  the  Western 

"  Decently  habited "  may  be  assumed  to  permit  the 
dress  appointed  for  future  ministrations. 

14.  Reverend  Father  in  God,  &c. 

"  The  Archdeacon  walking  into  the  middle  of  the  choir, 
with  his  eyes  fixed  on  the  Bishop,  addresses  him  in  these 
words,  '  Keverend  Father,  this  holy  Church  demands 
that  these  men  fit  for  Orders  be  consecrated  for  Her  by 
your  Paternity.'  The  Bishop  answers,  '  In  that  by  nature, 
knowledge,  and  manner  of  life,  such  persons  may  be 
presented  by  thee,  and  such  by  us  ordained  for  God's 
House,  that  by  them  the  devil  may  be  banished  afar  off, 
and  the  clergy  from  among  us  be  multiplied : '  the  Arch 
deacon  proceeds,  '  So  far  as  the  examination  of  men  is 
concerned,  they  are  esteemed  by  nature,  knowledge, 



The  Bishop. 

Take  heed  that  the  persons,  whom  ye  present 
unto  us,  be  apt  and  meet,  for  their  learning  and 
godly  conversation,  to  exercise  their  Ministry  duly, 
to  the  honour  of  God,  and  the  edifying  of  his 

U  The  Archdeacon  shall  answer, 

I  have  enquired  of  them,  and  also  examined 
them,  and  think  them  so  to  be. 

H  Then  the  Bishop  shall  say  unto  the  people  : 

Brethren,  if  there  be  any  of  you  who  knoweth 
any  Impediment,  or  notable  Crime,  in  any  of  these 
persons  presented  to  be  ordered  Deacons,  for  the 
which  he  ought  not  to  be  admitted  to  that  Office, 
let  him  come  forth  in  the  Name  of  God,  and  shew 
what  the  Crime  or  Impediment  is. 

and  way  of  life  to  be  worthy,  and  by  God's  will 
can  be  made  right  and  proper  fellow- workers  in  these 
duties'"  (Pontifical  of  the  Church  of  Noyon,  A.  D.  450, 
ed.  Martene). 

Cf.  Mediaeval  Pontifical  as  given  in  Maskell,  Mon. 
Rit.  iii.  pp.  154  et  seqq.  In  Procter  on  Book  of  C.  P., 
p.  435.  "  While  the  Office  is  being  sung  let  those  who 
are  to  be  ordained  be  called  by  name ;  then,  after 
prayer,  let  the  Bishop  sit  in  front  of  the  Altar  with  his 
face  towards  the  Candidates  and  let  the  Archdeacon, 
vested  in  a  cope,  reverently  looking  towards  the  Bishop, 
address  him  in  these  words,  "  Reverend  Father,  this  holy 
Church,"  &c.,  as  before.  "  The  Apostle  Paul  on  choosing 
men  to  be  ordained  either  Presbyters  or  Deacons,  does 
not  say  'If  any  one  be  without  sin';  were  he  so  to  say, 
every  human  being  would  be  rejected,  no  man  would  be 
ordained  ;  he  says. '  If  any  one  is  not  under  charge  of  crime ' 
(A.  V.  'blameless,'  Greek  ai>eyKAi7Tor  =  'not  accused'  Tit. 
i.  6)  such  as  murder,  adultery,  impurity,  theft,  fraud, 
sacrilege,  and  so  forth."  St.  Aug.  Tract  XLI.  on 
John  viii. 


*i  And  if  any  great  Crime  or  Impediment  be  objected,  the  Jlishop 
shall  surcease  from  Ordering  that  person,  until  such  time  as  the 
party  accused  shall  be  found  clear  of  that  Crime. 

H  [Then~\  the  Archdeacon,  or,  in  his  absence,  one  appointed  in  his 
ttead,  shall  present  unto  the  Bishop  (sitting  in  his  chair  near  to 
the  holy  Ta^le)  all  them  that  shall  receive  the  Order  of  Priest 
hood  that  day  (each  of  them  being  decently  habited)  and  sat/, 

Reverend  Father  in  God,  I  present  unto  you 
these  persons  present,  to  be  admitted  to  the  Order 
of  Priesthood. 

The  Bishop. 

Take  heed  that  the  persons,  whom  ye  present 
unto  us,  be  apt  and  meet,  for  their  learning  and 
godly  conversation,  to  exercise  their  Ministry  duly, 
to  the  honour  of  God,  and  the  edifying  of  his  Church. 

H  The  Archdeacon  shall  answer, 

I  have  enquired  of  them,  and  also  examined  them, 
and  think  them  so  to  be. 

^[  Then  the  Bishop  shall  say  unto  the  people: 

Good  people,  these  are  they  whom  we  purpose, 
God  willing,  to  receive  this  day  unto  the  holy  Office 
of  Priesthood :  For  after  due  examination  we  find 
not  to  the  contrary,  but  that  they  be  lawfully 
called  to  their  Function  and  Ministry,  and  that 
they  be  persons  meet  for  the  same.  But  yet  if 
there  be  any  of  you,  who  knoweth  any  Impediment, 
or  notable  Crime,  in  any  of  them,  for  the  which  he 
ought  not  to  be  received  into  this  holy  Ministry, 
let  him  come  forth  in  the  Name  of  God,  and  shew 
what  the  Crime  or  Impediment  is. 

U  And  if  any  great  Crime  or  Impediment  be  objected,  the  Bishop 
shall  surcease  from  Ordering  that  person,  until  such  time  as  the 
party  accused  shall  be  found  cle>ir  of  that  Crime. 
C  2 


IT  Then  the  Bishop  (commending  such  as  shall  befounfl  meet  to  be 
Ordered  to  the  Prayers  of  the  congregation)  shall,  with  the 
Clergy  and  people  present,  siny  or  say  the  Litany  (15),  with  the 
Prayers,  as  folloiceth.  [Both  proper  Suffrages  shall  be  used 
when  loth  Deacons  and  Priests  are  to  be  Ordered.'} 

The  Litany  and  Suffrages  (16). 

O  God  the  Father  of  heaven :  have  mercy  upon 
us  miserable  sinners. 

0  God  the  Father  of  heaven:  have  mercy  upon 
us  miserable  sinners. 

O  God  the  Son,  Redeemer  of  the  world  :  have 
mercy  upon  us  miserable  sinners. 

0  God  the  Son,  Redeemer  of  the  world :  have 
mercy  upon  us  miserable  sinners. 

O  God  the  Holy  Ghost,  proceeding  from  the 
Father  and  the  Son  :  have  mercy  upon  us  miser 
able  sinners. 

0  God  the  Holy  Ghost,  proceeding  from  the 
Father  and  the  Son :  have  mercy  upon  us  miser 
able  sinners. 

O  holy,  blessed,  and  glorious  Trinity,  three 
Persons  and  one  God :  have  mercy  upon  us,  miser 
able  sinners. 

15.  "  Then  the  Bishop  .  .  .  shall  .  .  .  sing  or  say  the 
Litany."     '•  Let  the  Bishop  prostrate  himself  with  all  the 
Candidates  and  let  a  Litany  be  said."     MS.  Pontif.  of 
the  use  of  Soissons,  A.D.  650  (Martene,  ii.  50). 

16.  In  the  Litany  in  the  Bainbridge  York  Pontifical 
"Let  the  Bishop  rise,  take  his   staff  in  his  hand,  turn 
to  the  candidates  and  say  'that  it  may  please  Thee  (i) 
to  bless,  (2)  to  bless  and  sanctify,  (3)  to  bless,  sanctify 
and  consecrate  the  chosen  (candidates),  We  beseech  Thee 
to  hear  us.'     After  this  the  Bishop  is  to  kneel  with  the 
Ministers,  to  the  end  of  the  Litany." 


0  holy,  blessed,  and  glorious  Trinity,  three 
Persons  and  one  God  :  have  mercy  upon  us  miser 
able  sinners. 

Remember  not.  Lord,  our  offences,  nor  the  offences 
of  our  forefathers ;  neither  take  thou  vengeance  of 
our  sins,  spare  us,  good  Lord,  spare  thy  people, 
whom  thou  hast  redeemed  with  thy  most  precious 
blood,  and  be  not  angry  with  us  for  ever. 
Spare  us,  good  Lord. 

From  all  evil  and  mischief ;  from  sin,  from  the 
crafts  and  assaults  of  the  devil ;  from  thy  wrath, 
and  from  everlasting  damnation, 

Good  Lord,  deliver  us. 

From  all  blindness  of  heart ;  from  pride,  vain 
glory,  and  hypocrisy ;  from  envy,  hatred,  and 
malice,  and  all  uncharitableness, 

Good  Lord,  deliver  us. 

From  fornication,  and  all  other  deadly  sin ;  and 
from  all  the  deceits  of  the  world,  the  flesh,  and  the 

Good  Lord,  deliver  us. 

From  lightning  and  tempest ;  from  plague,  pesti 
lence,  and  famine  ;  from  battle  and  murder,  and 
from  sudden  death, 

Good  Lord,  deliver  us. 

From  all  sedition,  privy  conspiracy,  and  rebel 
lion  ;  from  all  false  doctrine,  heresy,  and  schism  ; 
from  hardness  of  heart,  and  contempt  of  thy  Word 
and  Commandment, 

Good  Lord,  deliver  us. 

By  the  mystery  of  thy  holy  Incarnation  ;  by  thy 


holy  Nativity  and  Circumcision ;  by  thy  Baptism, 
Fasting,  and  Temptation, 

Good  Lord,  deliver  us. 

By  thine  Agony  and  bloody  Sweat ;  by  thy  Cross 
and  Passion ;  by  thy  precious  Death  and  Burial ; 
by  thy  glorious  Resurrection  and  Ascension ;  and 
by  the  coining  of  the  Holy  Ghost, 

Good  Lord,  deliver  us. 

In  all  time  of  our  tribulation ;  in  all  time  of  our 
wealth ;  in  the  hour  of  death,  and  in  the  day  of 

Good  Lord,  deliver  us. 

We  sinners  do  beseech  thee  to  hear  us,  O  Lord 
God  ;  and  that  it  may  please  thee  to  rule  and  govern 
thy  holy  Church  universal  in  the  right  way ; 
We  leteech  thee  to  hear  us,  good  Lord. 

That  it  may  please  thee  to  keep  and  strengthen 
in  the  true  worshipping  of  thee,  in  righteousness 
and  holiness  of  life,  thy  Servant  VICTORIA,  our 
most  gracious  Queen  and  Governour  ; 

We  leseech  thee  to  hear  us,  good  Lord. 

That  it  may  please  thee  to  rule  her  heart  in  thy 
faith,  fear,  and  love,  and  that  she  may  evermore 
have  affiance  in  thee,  and  ever  seek  thy  honour 
and  glory ; 

We  beteech  thee  to  hear  us,  good  Lord. 

That  it  may  please  thee  to  be  her  defender,  and 
keeper,  giving  her  the  victory  over  all  her  enemies ; 
We  beseech  thee  to  hear  us,  good  Lord. 

That  it  may  please  thee  to  bless  and  preserve 


Albert  Edward   Prince  of   Wales,  the  Princess  of 
Wales,  and  all  the  Royal  Family ; 

We  beseech  thee  to  hear  us,  good  Lord. 

That  it  may  please  thee  to  illuminate  all  Bishops, 
Priests,  and  Deacons,  with  true  knowledge  and 
understanding  of  thy  Word  ;  and  that  both  by  their 
preaching  and  living  they  may  set  it  forth,  and 
shew  it  accordingly ; 

We  beseech  thee  to  hear  us,  good  Lord. 

That  it  may  please  thee  to  bless  these  thy  ser 
vants  (17),  now  to  be  admitted  to  the  Order  of 
Deacons,  and  to  pour  thy  grace  upon  them ;  that 
they  may  duly  execute  their  Office,  to  the  edifying 
of  thy  Church,  and  the  glory  of  thy  holy  Name  ; 
We  beseech  thee  to  hear  us,  good  Lord. 

That  it  may  please  thee  to  bless  these  thy  ser 
vants  (17),  now  to  be  admitted  to  the  Order  of 
Priests,  and  to  pour  thy  grace  upon  them  ;  that 
they  may  duly  execute  their  Office,  to  the  edifying 
of  thy  Church,  and  the  glory  of  thy  holy  Name  ; 
We  beseech  thee  to  hear  us,  good  Lord. 

That  it  may  please  thee  to  endue  the  Lords  of 
the  Council,  and  all  the  Nobility,  with  grace, 
wisdom,  and  understanding ; 

We  beseech  thee  to  hear  us,  good  Lord. 

17.  On  the  special  supplications,  cf.  "  That  the  merciful 
God  may  for  him  keep  his  diaconate  without  spot  and 
blameless  let  us  beseech  the  Lord."  J.  Goar,  p.  241  (in 
Ordinat.  Diaconi).  "  Let  us  pray  that  on  these  His  own 
servants  whom  He  has  chosen  to  the  office  of  the  Priest 
hood  He  will  bestow  abundantly  those  heavenly  gifts 
whereby  that  which  they  undertake  by  His  appointment 
the  same  by  this  aid  they  may  perform."  Sacr.  of  Leo,  424. 


That  it  may  please  thee  to  bless  and  keep  the 
Magistrates,  giving  them  grace  to  execute  justice, 
and  to  maintain  truth  ; 

We  beseech  thee  to  hear  us,  good  Lord. 

That  it  may  please  thee  to  bless  and  keep  all  thy 
people ; 

We  beseech  thee  to  hear  us,  good  Lord. 

That  it  may  please  thee  to  give  to  all  nations 
unity,  peace,  and  concord ; 

We  beseech  thee  to  hear  us,  good  Lord. 

That  it  may  please  thee  to  give  us  an  heart  to 
love  and  dread  thee,  and  diligently  to  live  after  thy 
commandments ; 

We  beseech  thee  to  hear  us,  good  Lord. 

That  it  may  please  thee  to  give  to  all  thy  people 
increase  of  grace  to  hear  meekly  thy  Word,  and  to 
receive  it  with  pure  affection,  and  to  bring  forth 
the  fruits  of  the  Spirit ; 

We  beseech  thee  to  hear  us,  good  Lord. 

That  it  may  please  thee  to  bring  into  the  way  of 
truth  all  such  as  have  erred,  and  are  deceived  ; 
We  beseech  thee  to  hear  us,  good  Lord. 

That  it  may  please  thee  to  strengthen  such  as 
do   stand ;   and   to  comfort   and   help   the   weak- 
hearted  ;    and   to   raise   up   them   that   fall ;    and 
finally  to  beat  down  Satan  under  our  feet ; 
We  beseech  thee  to  hear  us,  good  Lord. 

That  it  may  please  thee  to  succour,  help,  and 
comfort,  all  that  are  in  danger,  necessity,  and 
tribulation ; 

We  beseech  thee  to  hear  us,  good  Lord. 


That  it  may  please   thee   to  preserve  all   that 
travel  by  land  or  by  water,  all  women  labouring  of 
child,  all  sick  persons,  and  young  children  ;  and  to 
shew  thy  pity  upon  all  prisoners  and  captives  ; 
We  beseech  thee  to  hear  us,  good  Lord. 

That  it  may  please  thee  to  defend,  and  provide 
for,  the  fatherless  children  and  widows,  and  all  that 
are  desolate  and  oppressed  ; 

We  beseech  thee  to  hear  us,  good  Lord. 

That  it  may  please  thee  to  have  mercy  upon  all 
men ; 

We  beseech  thee  to  hear  us,  good  Lord. 

That  it  may  please  thee  to  forgive  our  enemies, 
persecutors,  and  slanderers,  and  to  turn  their 
hearts  ; 

We  beseech  thee  to  hear  us,  good  Lord. 

That  it  may  please  thee  to  give  and  preserve  to 
our  use  the  kindly  fruits  of  the  earth,  so  as  in  due 
time  we  may  enjoy  them  ; 

We  beseech  thee  to  hear  us,  good  Lord. 

That  it  may  please  thee  to  give  us  true  repen 
tance  ;  to  forgive  us  all  our  sins,  negligences,  and 
ignorances  ;  and  to  endue  us  with  the  grace  of  thy 
Holy  Spirit  to  amend  our  lives  according  to  thy 
holy  Word  ; 

We  beseech  thee  to  hear  us,  good  Lord. 

Son  of  God :  we  beseech  thee  to  hear  us. 
Son  of  God :  we  beseech  thee  to  hear  us. 
0  Lamb  of  God:  that  takest  away  the  sins  of 
the  world ; 

Grant  us  thy  peace. 


O  Lamb  of  God :  that  takest  away  the  sins  of 
the  world ; 

Have  mercy  upon  us. 
O  Christ,  hear  us. 

0  Christ,  hear  us. 
Lord,  have  mercy  upon  us. 

Lord,  have  mercy  upon  us. 
Christ,  have  mercy  upon  us. 

Christ,  have  mercy  upon  us. 
Lord,  have  mercy  upon  us. 

Lord,  have  mercy  upon  us. 

^f  Then  shall  the  Priest,  and  the  people  icith 
him,  say  the  Lord's  Prayer. 

Our  Father,  which  art  in  heaven,  Hallowed  be 
thy  Name.  Thy  kingdom  come.  Thy  will  be  done 
in  earth,  As  it  is  in  heaven.  Give  us  this  day  our 
daily  bread.  And  forgive  us  our  trespasses,  As 
we  forgive  them  that  trespass  against  us.  And 
lead  us  not  into  temptation ;  But  deliver  us  from 
evil.  Amen. 

Priest.     0  Lord,  deal  not  with  us  after  our  sins. 

Answer.     Neither  reward  us  after  our  iniquities. 

Let  us  pray. 

O  God,  merciful  Father,  that  despisest  not  the 
sighing  of  a  contrite  heart,  nor  the  desire  of  such 
as  be  sorrowful  ;  Mercifully  assist  our  prayers  that 
we  make  before  thee  in  all  our  troubles  and  adver 
sities,  whensoever  they  oppress  us  ;  and  graciously 
hear  us,  that  those  evils,  which  the  craft  and  sub- 
tilty  of  the  devil  or  man  worketh  against  us,  be 
brought  to  nought ;  and  by  the  providence  of  thy 
goodness  they  may  be  dispersed ;  that  we  thy 


servants,  being  hurt  by  no  persecutions,  may 
evermore  give  thanks  unto  thee  in  thy  holy 
Church  ;  through  Jesus  Christ  our  Lord. 

0  Lord,  arise,  help  us,  and  deliver  us  for  thy 
Name's  sake. 

O  God,  we  have  heard  with  our  ears,  and  our 
fathers  have  declared  unto  us,  the  noble  works  that 
thou  didst  in  their  days,  and  in  the  old  time  before 

0  Lord,  arise,  help  us,  and  deliver  us  for  thine 

Glory  be  to  the  Father,  and  to  the  Son :  and  to 
the  Holy  Ghost ; 

Ansu'er.  As  it  was  in  the  beginning,  is  now, 
and  ever  shall  be  :  world  without  end.  Amen. 

From  our  enemies  defend  us,  O  Christ. 

Graciously  look  upon  our  afflictions. 

Pitifully  behold  the  sorrows  of  our  hearts. 

Mercifully  forgive  the  sins  of  thy  people. 

Favourably  with  mercy  hear  our  prayers. 

0  Son  of  David,  have  mercy  upon  us. 

Both  now  and  ever  vouchsafe  to  hear  us,  O 

Graciously  hear  us,  0  Christ;  graciously  hear 
us,  0  Lord  Christ. 

Priest.  O  Lord,  let  thy  mercy  be  shewed  upon 
us  ; 

Answer.     As  we  do  put  our  trust  in  thee. 

Let  us  pray. 

We  humbly  beseech  thee,  O  Father,  mercifully 
to  look  upon  our  infirmities ;  and  for  the  glory  of 


thy  Name  turn  from  us  all  those  evils  that  we  most 
righteously  have  deserved  ;  and  grant,  that  in  all 
our  troubles  we  may  put  our  whole  trust  and  con 
fidence  in  thy  mercy,  and  evermore  serve  thee  in 
holiness  and  pureness  of  living,  to  thy  honour  and 
glory  ;  through  our  only  Mediator  and  Advocate, 
Jesus  Christ  our  Lord.  Amen. 

U  Then  shall  be  sung  or  said  the  Service  for  the  Communion,  with 
the  Collect,  Epistle,  and  Gospel,  asfolloweth. 

The  Collect  (18). 

[For  the  Ordering  of  Deacons."} 

Almighty  God,  who  by  thy  Divine  Providence 
hast  appointed  divers  Orders  of  Ministers  in  thy 
Church,  and  didst  inspire  thine  Apostles  to  choose 

18.  Cf.  the  Collect  in  the  Ancient  Greek  Pontifical. 
"  0  Lord  our  God,  who  by  Thy  foreknowledge  sendest  the 
gift  of  Thy  Holy  Spirit  on  those  appointed  by  Thine 
unsearchable  might,  that  they  may  be  ministers  and 
attendants  on  Thy  spotless  mysteries,  keep,  O  Lord,  this 
man,  whom  Thou  hast  vouchsafed  to  advance  by  me  to 
the  office  of  tbe  Diaconate,  in  all  holiness,  holding  the 
mystery  of  the  faith  in  a  pure  conscience.  Give  him  the 
grace  which  Thou  didst  give  into  Stephen  Thy  Protomartyr, 
whom  Thou  didst  call  first  to  the  wurk  of  Thy  Diaconate, 
and  make  him  fit,  according  to  Thy  good  pleasure,  to  guard 
well  the  degree  bestowed  on  him  by  Thy  goodness  (for 
they  who  use  this  ministry  well,  procure  to  themselves  a 
good  degree)  and  make  Thy  servant  perfect.  For  Thine 
is  the  kingdom,  and  the  power,  and  the  glory,  Father, 
Son  and  Holy  Ghost,  now  and  ever,  and  to  ages  of  ages. 
Amen."  Offices  of  the  Holy  Eastern  Church.  Littledale. 

The  Sacramentary  of  Leo,  423,  424,  has  the  prayer : 
"  Almighty  God  giver  of  good  things,  assignor  of  orders, 
Who  preparest  all  things  by  Thy  everlasting  providence 
and  appointest  a  service  of  sacred  duty  for  three  grades 
of  ministers  to  fight  in  Thy  name." 


into  the  Order  of  Deacons  the  first  Martyr  Saint 
Stephen,  with  others  ;  Mercifully  behold  these  thy 
servants  now  called  to  the  like  Office  and  Adminis 
tration  ;  replenish  them  so  with  the  truth  of  thy 
Doctrine,  and  adorn  them  with  innocency  of  life, 
that,  both  by  word  and  good  example,  they  may 
faithfully  serve  thee  in  this  Office,  to  the  glory  of 
thy  Name,  and  the  edification  of  thy  Church ; 
through  the  merits  of  our  Saviour  Jesus  Christ, 
who  liveth  and  reigneth  with  thee  and  the  Holy 
Ghost,  now  and  for  ever.  Amen. 

The  Collect. 

[.For  the  Ordering  of  Priests], 

Almighty  God,  giver  of  all  good  things,  who  by 
thy  Holy  Spirit  hast  appointed  divers  Orders  of 
Ministers  in  the  Church ;  Mercifully  behold  these 
thy  servants  now  called  to  the  Office  of  Priesthood ; 
and  replenish  them  so  with  the  truth  of  thy  doctrine, 
and  adorn  them  with  innocency  of  life,  that,  both 
by  word  and  good  example,  they  may  faithfully 
serve  thee  in  this  Office,  to  the  glory  of  thy  Name, 
and  the  edification  of  thy  Church ;  through  the 
merits  of  our  Saviour  Jesus  Christ,  who  liveth  and 
reigneth  with  thee  and  the  Holy  Ghost,  world 
without  end.  Amen. 

The  Epistle,     i  Tim.  iii.  8. 

[To  be  read  only  at  the  Ordination  of  Deacons  alone.'] 

Likewise  must  the  Deacons  be  grave,  not  double 
tongued,  not  given  to  much  wine,  not  greedy  of 
filthy  lucre,  holding  the  mystery  of  the  faith  in  a  pure 
conscience.  And  let  these  also  first  be  proved ; 


then  let  them  use  the  Office  of  a  Deacon,  being 
found  blameless.  Even  so  •  must  their  wives  be 
grave,  not  slanderers,  sober,  faithful  in  all  things. 
Let  the  Deacons  be  the  husbands  of  one  wife,  ruling 
their  children  and  their  own  houses  well.  For  they 
that  have  used  the  Office  of  a  Deacon  well  purchase 
to  themselves  a  good  degree,  and  great  boldness  in 
the  faith  which  is  in  Christ  Jesus. 

Or  else  this,  out  of  the  sixth  of  the  Acts  of  the 

Acts  vi.  2. 

Then  the  twelve  called  the  multitude  of  the  dis 
ciples  unto  them,  and  said,  It  is  not  reason  that  we 
should  leave  the  Word  of  God,  and  serve  tables. 
Wherefore,  brethren,  look  ye  out  among  you  seven 
men  of  honest  report,  full  of  the  holy  Ghost  and 
wisdom,  whom  we  may  appoint  over  this  business. 
But  we  will  give  ourselves  continually  to  prayer, 
and  to  the  ministry  of  the  Word.  And  the  saying 
pleased  the  whole  multitude.  And  they  chose 
Stephen,  a  man  full  of  faith,  and  of  the  holy  Ghost, 
and  Philip,  and  Prochorus,  and  Nicanor,  and  Timon, 
and  Parmenas,  and  Nicolas  a  proselyte  of  Antioch  ; 
whom  they  set  before  the  Apostles  ;  and,  when  they 
had  prayed,  they  laid  their  hands  on  them.  And 
the  Word  of  God  increased,  and  the  number  of  the 
disciples  multiplied  in  Jerusalem  greatly,  and  a 
great  company  of  the  Priests  were  obedient  to  the 

The  Epistle.     Ephes.  iv.  7. 

[To  be  read  only  when  there  are  Priests  to  \>e  ordained]. 

Unto  every  one  of  us  is  given  grace,  according  to 


the  measure  of  the  gift  of  Christ.  Wherefore  he 
saith,  When  he  ascended  up  on  high,  he  led  captivity 
captive,  and  gave  gifts  unto  men.  (Now  that  he 
ascended,  what  is  it  but  that  he  also  descended 
first  into  the  lower  parts  of  the  earth  ?  He  that 
descended,  is  the  same  also  that  ascended  up  far 
above  all  heavens,  that  he  might  fill  all  things.) 
And  he  gave  some  Apostles,  and  some  Prophets,  and 
some  Evangelists,  and  some  Pastors  and  Teachers  ; 
for  the  perfecting  of  the  Saints,  for  the  work  of  the 
Ministry,  for  the  edifying  of  the  Body  of  Christ ; 
till  we  all  come  in  the  unity  of  the  faith,  and  of 
the  knowledge  of  the  Son  of  God,  unto  a  perfect 
man,  unto  the  measure  of  the  stature  of  the  fulness 
of  Christ. 

^f  Then  shall  the  Bishop,  ''sitting  in  his  chair,"  examine  every  one 
of  them  that  are  to  be  Ordered  [Deacons],  in  the  presence  of  the 
people,  after  this  manner  following1. 

Do  you  trust  that  you  are  inwardly  moved  by 
the  Holy  Ghost  to  take  upon  you  this  Office  and 
Ministration,  to  serve  God  for  the  promoting  of  his 
glory,  and  the  edifying  of  his  people  ? 

Answer.  I  trust  so. 

The  Bishop. 

Do  you  think  that  you  are  truly  called,  accord 
ing  to  the  will  of  our  Lord  Jesus  Christ,  and  the 
due  order  of  this  Realm,  to  the  Ministry  of  the 
Church  ? 

Answer.  I  think  so. 

1  Cf.  p.  32  n. 


The  Bishop. 

Do  you  unfeignedly  believe  all  the  Canonical 
Scriptures  (19)  of  the  Old  and  New  Testament  ? 

19.  "  Unfeignedly  believe  all  the,  Canonical  Scriptures." 
This  would  appear  to  mean  '  believe  the  Catholic  Faith  as 
contained  in  and  proved  by  the  Canonical  Scriptures,  and 
accept  those  Scriptures  as  Canonical  which  the  Church 
accepts.'  Cf.  Art.  vi.  and  Justinian,  Nov.  137  "Above 
all  things  it  is  necessary  that  there  be  required  from 
the  candidate  for  ordination  a  document  with  his  own 
signature  containing  his  right  faith,"  cf.  Rufinus  on  the 
Creed,  §  37.  "These  the  Fathers  included  in  the  Canon 
and  on  these  determined  our  assertion  of  the  Faith  to 

"  Let  preachers  take  heed  that  they  deliver  nothing 
from  the  pulpit,  to  be  religiously  held  and  believed  by  the 
people,  but  that  which  is  agreeable  to  the  Old  and  New 
Testament,  and  such  as  the  Catholic  fathers  and  ancient 
bishops  have  collected  therefrom"  (Canon  of  Conv.  1571). 
"  Further,  there  hath  been  some  doubt  likewise,  whether 
containing  in  Scripture  do  import  express  setting  down  in 
plain  terms,  or  else  comprehending  in  such  sort  that  by 
reason  we  may  from  thence  conclude  all  things  which  are 
necessary.  Against  the  former  of  these  two  constructions 
instance  hath  sundry  ways  been  given.  For  our  belief  in 
the  Trinity,  the  co-eternity  of  the  Son  of  God  with  His 
Father,  the  proceeding  of  the  Spirit  from  the  Father  and 
the  Son,  the  duty  of  baptizing  infants :  these  with  such 
other  principal  points,  the  necessity  whereof  is  by  none 
denied,  are  notwithstanding  in  Scripture  nowhere  to  be 
found  by  express  literal  mention,  only  deduced  they  are 
out  of  Scripture  by  collection.  This  kind  of  comprehension 
in  Scripture  being  therefore  received,  still  there  is  doubt 
how  far  we  are  to  proceed  by  collection,  before  the  full 
and  complete  measure  of  things  necessary  be  made  up. 
For  let  us  not  think  that  as  long  as  the  world  doth 
endure,  the  wit  of  man  shall  be  able  to  sound  the  bottom 
of  that  which  may  be  concluded  out  of  the  Scripture ; 
especially  if  things  contained  by  collection  do  so  far 
extend  as  to  draw  in  whatsoever  may  be  at  any  time  out 
of  Scripture  but  probably  and  conjecturally  surmised. 


Answer.  I  do  believe  them. 

The  B-ithop. 

Will  you  diligently  read  (20)  the  same  unto  the 
people  assembled  in  the  Church  where  you  shall 
be  appointed  to  serve  ? 

Answer.  I  will. 

The  Bishop. 

It  appertaineth  to  the  Office  of  a  Deacon,  in  the 
Church  where  he  shall  be  appointed  to  serve,  to 
assist  the  Priest  in  Divine  Service  (21),  and  specially 

But  let  necessary  collection  be  made  requisite,  and  we 
may  boldly  deny  that  of  all  those  things  that  at  this  day 
are  with  so  great  necessity  urged  upon  this  Church  under 
the  name  of  reformed  Church  discipline  there  is  any  one 
which  their  books  hitherto  have  been  made  manifest  to  be 
contained  in  the  Scriptures.  Let  them  if  they  can  allege 
but  one  properly  belonging  to  their  cause,  arid  not 
common  to  themselves,  and  shew  the  deduction  thereof 
out  of  Scripture  to  be  necessary "  (Hooker,  Ecc.  Pol.  /. 
xiv.  2).  (Of  course  the  argument  of  Hooker  against 
Puritan  innovators  in  the  sixteenth  century  holds  good 
also  against  Italian  innovations  of  the  same  period,  as  well 
as  against  those  of  1854  and  1870.) 

20.  "  Diligently   read    unto    the   people."     The  word 
"  diligent,"   by  derivation  and   usage,  includes   the  two 
ideas   of  careful   and   loving.      It  forbids   and   excludes 
a  reading  unprepared,  unscholarly,  slipshod,   callous,  or 

21.  Assist  the  Priest  in  Divine  Service.    "  After  the  pre 
siding  Minister  "  (6  irpoearas,  cf.  ot  irpoia-Ta/Jifvoi  in  I  Thess. 
v.   12,  and  the   TrpoeorwTfs   TTpfa-fivTepoi  in    i   Tim.  v.   17. 
IIpofOTcos  later  was  commonly  used  for  Bishop,  and  might 
be  so  translated  here.   Cf.  the  probati  seniores  of  Tertullian, 
Apol.  xxxix,  and  the  majores  natu  of  Firmilian  to  Cyprian, 
Ep.  Ixxv,  Ed.  Oxf.  1844.    Vide  notes  to  Bp.  Kaye's  Justin 
in  Griffith  and  Farran's  Anct.  and  Mod.  Theol.  Library), 
"  has  offered  Eucharist  ^ev^apia-rfja-avTos),  those  who  among 



when  he  ministereth  the  holy  Communion,  and  to 
help  him  in  the  distribution  thereof,  and  to  read 
holy  Scriptures  and  Homilies  in  the  Church ;  and 
to  instruct  the  youth  in  the  Catechism  ;  in  the 
absence  of  the  Priest  to  baptize  infants,  and  to 
preach,  if  he  be  admitted  thereto  by  the  Bishop. 
And  furthermore,  it  is  his  Office,  where  provision  is 
so  made,  to  search  for  the  sick,  poor,  and  impotent 

us  are  called  Deacons  give  to  each  of  the  persons  present 
to  partake  of  Eucharist ic  bread  and  wine  and  water 
(tv\apurrij0fVTos  blessed,  or  offered  in  thanksgiving)  and 
then  carry  it  to  the  absent"  (Justin  Martyr,  |  c.  166, 
Apol.  i.  85). 

"  The  Deacons  in  their  ecclesiastical  rank  were  not 
entrusted  with  the  duty  of  offering  any  mystery,  but  only 
with  that  of  ministering  the  things  offered  («riTfAeZi> — 
eiriTfXovpfia)  (Epiph.  Haer.  CoHyrid.  79). 

"  In  the  absence  of  the  Priest,  and  when  necessity 
compels,  the  Deacon  must  needs  give  Baptism  to  him  that 
asketh  "  (Theodoret,  t  c.  458  in  2  Chroii.  xxix.  34). 

"  Let  the  Deacon  take  the  cup,  and  as  he  gives  it,  let 
him  say,  Blood  of  Christ,  Cup  of  Life  "  (Apost.  Const. 
viii.  13). 

"  A  Deacon  does  not  offer,  but  after  the  Bishop  or  the 
Presbyter  has  offered,  he  by  himself  gives  it  to  the  people, 
not  as  a  '  hiereus '  "  (lepevs,  cf.  note  on  p.  26  ;  yet  tenet's 
and  its  correlatives  came  to  be  used  freely  of  all  the 
clergy ;  e.g.  Theod.  Ecc.  Hist.  iv.  8,  cf.  Diet.  Christ.  Ant. 
ii.  1470),  "but  as  ministering  to  priests."  (Ajwst.  Const. 
viii.  28). 

"  If  a  Priest,  hindered  by  some  infirmity,  be  unable  to 
preach,  let  homilies  of  the  holy  Fathers  be  read  aloud  by 
Deacons.  For  if  Deacons  are  fit  to  read  what  Christ  speaks 
in  the  Gospel,  why  should  they  be  deemed  unfit  to  read 
aloud  in  public  the  comments  of  the  holy  Fathers  1  " 
(Council  of  Vaison,  A.D.  529,  Mans.  viii.  725). 

"  It  becomes  a  sacerdos  to  offer,  to  bless,  to  preside, 
to  preach  and  to  baptize.  A  Levite,  that  is  a  Minister,  it 
behoves  to  minister  at  the  altar,  to  baptize,  and  to  com 
municate  "  (English  MS.  Pontifical,  Martene,  ii.  37). 


people  of  the  Parish,  to  intimate  their  estates, 
names,  and  places  where  they  dwell,  unto  the 
Curate,  that  by  his  exhortation  they  may  be 
relieved  with  the  alms  of  the  Parishioners,  or 
others.  Will  you  do  this  gladly  and  willingly  ? 
Answer.  1  will  so  do,  by  the  help  of  God. 

The  Bishop. 

Will  you  apply  all  your  diligence  to  frame  and 
fashion  your  own  lives,  and  the  lives  of  your 
families  (22),  according  to  the  Doctrine  of  Christ  ;• 

22.  Your  own  lives,  and  the  lives  of  your  families. 
It  is  enacted  that  the  sons  or  daughters  of  Bishops  or  of 
any  of  the  clergy,  are  not  to  be  joined  in  marriage  with 
the  heathen,  with  heretics  or  with  schismatics "  (Third 
Council  of  Carthage,  Labbe,  ii.  1169). 

"  Let  all  who  serve  at  the  Holy  Altars  be  both  built 
upon  the  foundation  of  the  truth  of  the  Faith,  and  con 
spicuous  for  purity  of  heart  "  (Sacramentary  of  Leo,  421), 

"  Grant  that  all  they  that  preach  Thy  word  may  pro 
fitably  and  godly  preach  Thee,  and  Thy  Son  Jesus  Christ 
through  all  the  world  "  (Inst.  of  a  Christian  Man,  p.  189). 

"  Priest,  Deacon,  and  layman,  using  marriage  blame 
lessly  "  (Clem.  Alex.  Strom,  iii.  1 2). 

'•  The  parson  is  very  exact  in  the  governing  of  his 
house,  making  it  a  copy  and  model  for  his  parish.  He 
knows  the  temper  and  pulse  of  every  person  in  his  house, 
and  accordingly  either  meets  with  their  vices,  or  advanceth 
their  virtues.  His  wife  is  either  religious,  or  night  and 
day  he  is  winning  her  to  it.  Instead  of  the  qualities  of 
the  world,  he  requires  only  three  of  her ;  first,  a  training 
up  of  her  children  and  maids  in  the  fear  of  God,  with 
prayers  and  catechizing,  and  all  religious  duties.  Secondly, 
a  curing  and  healing  of  all  wounds  and  sores  with  her  own 
hands ;  which  skill  either  she  brought  with  her,  or  he 
takes  care  that  she  shall  learn  it  of  some  religious 
neighbour.  Thirdly,  a  providing  for  her  family  in  such 
sort,  as  that  neither  they  want  a  comfortable  sustentation, 
nor  her  husband  be  brought  into  debt.  His  children  he 
makes  first  Christians,  and  then  Commonwealth's  men  ; 
D  2 


and  to  make  both  yourselves  and  them,  as  much  as 
in  you  lieth,  wholesome  examples  of  the  flock  of 
Christ  ? 

Ansicer.   I  will  so  do,  the  Lord  being  my  helper. 

The  Bishop. 

Will  you  reverently  obey  your  Ordinary  (23),  and 
other  chief  Ministers  of  the  Church,  and  them  to 
whom  the  charge  and  government  over  you  is  com 
mitted,  following  with  a  glad  mind  and  will  their 
godly  admonitions  ? 

A  nswer.  I  will  endeavour  myself,  the  Lord  being 
my  helper. 

rt  Then  the  J.ishop  laying  his  Hands  severally  upon  the  Head  of 
every  one  of  them  (24),  humbly  kneeling  before  him,  shall  say, 

Take  thou  Authority  to  execute  the  Office  of 
a  Deacon  in  the  Church  of  God  committed  unto 

the  one  he  owes  to  his  heavenly  country,  the  other  to  his 
eaithly,  having  no  title  to'  either,  except  he  do  good  to 
both  "  (George  Herbert,  A  Priest  to  the  Temple). 

23.  Reverently  obey  your  Ordinary.     Cf.  note  43. 

"  To  the  end  that  ye  may  obey  the  Bishop  of  the 
Presbytery  without  distraction  of  mind "  (Ignat.  ad 
Epli.  xx).  "  Neither  do  ye  anything  without  the  Bishop 
and  Presbyters "  (Ignat.  ad  Magnes.  vii).  "  Refuse  to 
resist  the  Bishop  in  this  matter,  and  follow  his  action 
without  scruple  or  dispute  "  (Aug.  Ep.  xxi.  6). 

N.B. — Ordinary, in  Civil  Law,  is  any  one  who  ordinarily 
exercises  regular  jurisdiction.  In  the  Book  of  Common 
Prayer  it  will  generally  mean  the  Bishop  *. 

24.  The  Bishop  laying  his  Hands  severally,  &c. 

"  0  Bisho]i,  thou  shalt  oidain  a  Deacon  on  laying  thy 
hands  on  him  "  (Const.  Ap.  viii.  17).  "  When  a  Deacon 
is  ordained,  let  the  Bishop  alone,  who  has  blessed  him, 

1  Cf.  note  on  p.  69  on  the  similar  promise  of  those  to  be  ordained 
Priests,  and  Oath  of  Canonical  Obedience,  p.  6. 


thee ;  In  the  Name  of  the  Father,  and  of  the  Son, 
and  of  the  Holy  Ghost.  Amen  (25). 

lay  his  hand  upon  his  head,  in  that  he  is  consecrated  not 
to  the  priesthood  (sacerdotium)  but  to  the  ministry"  (Cone. 
Carth.  iv.  4  ;  Labbe,  ii.  1200). 

"  After  the  Litany  let  the  candidates  chosen  for  the 
priesthood  return  to  their  own  places,  while  the  Levites 
remain  for  consecration.  Let  the  Bishop  say  to  them 
without  sign  and  sitting,  '  It  behoves  a  Deacon  to  serve 
at  the  Altar,  to  read  the  Gospel,  to  baptize  and  to  preach.' 
Tlien  while  they  bend  before  him,  let  the  Bishop  alone 
who  blesses  them  put  his  hand  on  the  head  of  each,  one  by 
one,  saying,  alone  and  secretly,  Receive  the  Holy  Ghost ; 
inasmuch  as  they  are  consecrated  not  to  the  priesthood 
(sacerdotium)  but  to  service  (ministeriwm) "  (Mediaeval 
Pontifical).  In  the  Greek  Pontifical  (Littledale's  Offices 
of  Eastern  Church,  p.  150)  "  The  Bishop,  keeping  his 
hand  on  the  candidate's  head,  prays  thus  secretly  .  .  . 
'  0  Lord  of  all,  fill  this  Thy  servant,  whom  Thou  hast 
chosen  to  enter  on  the  ministry  of  the  Diaconute,  with 
all  faith  and  love  and  power  and  sanctification,  by  the 
visitation  of  Thy  holy  and  quickening  Spirit  (for  it  is 
not  by  the  imposition  of  my  hands,  but  by  the  watch 
fulness  of  Thy  rich  mercies  that  grace  is  given  to  Thy 
chosen  ones.  .  .).'  After  the  Amen  he  puts  the  stole 
on  the  newly-ordained,  over  the  left  shoulder,  saying, 
'  Worthy ; '  and  worthy  is  repeated  thrice  according  to 
custom  by  those  in  the  Bema,  and  thrice  by  the  singers, 
then  the  Bishop  gives  him  the  holy  fan."  (Cf.  Int. 
p.  22.) 

25.  In  the  Mediaeval  Pontifical,  immediately  after  the 
laying  on  of  hands,  there  follows  :  "  Well  beloved,  let  us 
beseech  God  the  Father  Almighty  that  over  these  His 
servants  whom  He  has  permitted  to  take  the  office  of 
the  Diaconate,  He  will  mercifully  pour  out  the  grace 
of  His  blessing,  and  of  His  goodness  preserve  the  gifts 
of  the  consecration  bestowed  upon  them,  and  mercifully 
hear  our  prayers ;  to  the  end  that  all  things  that  are 
to  be  done  by  our  ministry  He  may  by  His  kindly  aid 
bring  to  perfection,  and  by  His  election  may  sanctify  those 
who  in  the  measure  of  our  understanding  we  judge  right 
to  be  presented  for  the  performance  of  His  holy  mysteries." 


^[  Then  shall  the  Bixhop  deliver  to  every  one  of 
them  the  New  Testament  (26),  saying, 

Take  thou  Authority  to  read  the  Gospel  in  the 
Church  of  God,  and  to  preach  the  same,  if  thou  be 
thereto  licensed  by  the  Bishop  himself. 

If  Then  one  of  them,  appointed  by  the  Bishop, 
shall  read  the  Gospel. 

St.  Luke  xii.  35. 

Let  your  loins  be  girded  about,  and  your  lights 
burning  ;  and  ye  yourselves  like  unto  men  that 
wait  for  their  Lord,  when  he  will  return  from  the 
wedding ;  that,  when  he  cometh  and  knocketh, 
they  may  open  unto  him  immediately.  Blessed  are 
those  servants,  whom  the  Lord  when  he  cometh 
shall  find  watching.  Verily  I  say  unto  you,  that 
he  shall  gird  himself,  and  make  them  to  sit  down 
to  meat,  and  will  come  forth  and  serve  them.  And 
if  he  shall  come  in  the  second  watch,  or  come  in  the 
third  watch,  and  find  them  so,  blessed  are  those 

II  Or  there  shall  be  read  for  the  Gospel  part  of  the  ninth 

Chapter  of  Saint  Matthew,  asfolloiveth  [except 

when  only  Deacons  are  to  be  ordered]. 

St.  Matth.  ix.  36. 
When  Jesus  saw  the  multitudes,  he  was  moved 

26.  Then  shall  the  Bishop  deliver  to  every  one  of  them 
the  New  Testament. 

The  direction  of  the  Mediaeval  Pontifical  was,  "  After 
the  Prefatio  then  shall  the  Bishop  give  to  every  one  of  the 
Deacons  a  stole,  saying,  '  In  the  name  of  the  Holy  Trinity, 
receive  the  stole  of  immortality ;  fulfil  thy  ministry,  for 
God  who  lives  and  reigns  is  able  to  increase  grace  for  thy 
aid.'  After  this,  let  him  give  to  them  the  book  of  the 
Gospels,  saying,  '  In  the  name  of  the  Holy  Trinity,  receive 
authority  to  read  the  Gospel  in  God's  Church,  as  well  for 
the  living  as  for  the  dead ;  in  the  name  of  the  Lord. 
Amen.' " 


with  compassion  on  them,  because  they  fainted, 
and  were  scattered  abroad  as  sheep  having  no  shep 
herd.  Then  saith  he  unto  his  disciples,  The  harvest 
truly  is  plenteous,  but  the  labourers  are  few.  Pray 
ye  therefore  the  Lord  of  the  harvest,  that  he  will 
send  forth  labourers  into  his  harvest. 

\  Or  else  this  that  folloiceth,  out  of  the  tenth  Chaptsr 
of  Saint  John  [only  when  Priests  alone  are  to  be  ordered], 

St.  John  x.  i. 

Verily,  verily  I  say  unto  you,  He  that  entereth 
not  by  the  door  into  the  sheep-fold,  but  climbeth 
up  some  other  way,  the  same  is  a  thief  and  a  robber. 
But  he  that  entereth  in  by  the  door  is  the  Shepherd 
of  the  sheep.  To  him  the  porter  openeth,  and  the 
sheep  hear  his  voice  ;  and  he  calleth  his  own  sheep 
by  name,  and  leadeth  them  out.  And  when  he 
putteth  forth  his  own  sheep  he  goeth  before  them, 
and  the  sheep  follow  him  ;  for  they  know  his  voice. 
And  a  stranger  will  they  not  follow,  but  will  flee 
from  him  ;  for  they  know  not  the  voice  of  strangers. 
This  parable  spake  Jesus  unto  them,  but  they 
understood  not  what  things  they  were  which  he 
spake  unto  them.  Then  said  Jesus  unto  them  again, 
Verily,  verily  I  say  unto  you,  I  am  the  door  of  the 
sheep.  All  that  ever  came  before  me  are  thieves 
and  robbers ;  but  the  sheep  did  not  hear  them. 
I  am  the  door  ;  by  me  if  any  man  enter  in,  he  shall 
be  saved,  and  shall  go  in  and  out,  and  find  pasture. 
The  thief  cometh  not  but  for  to  steal,  and  to  kill, 
and  to  destroy :  I  am  come  that  they  might  have 
life,  and  that  they  might  have  it  more  abundantly. 
I  am  the  good  Shepherd  :  the  good  Shepherd  giveth 
his  life  for  the  sheep.  But  he  that  is  an  hireling, 


and  not  the  Shepherd,  whose  own  the  sheep  are 
not,  seeth  the  wolf  coming,  and  leaveth  the  sheep, 
and  fleeth ;  and  the  wolf  catcheth  them,  and  scat- 
tereth  the  sheep.  The  hireling  fleeth.  because  he  is 
an  hireling,  and  careth  not  for  the  sheep.  I  am 
the  good  Shepherd,  and  know  my  sheep,  and  am 
known  of  mine.  As  the  Father  knoweth  me,  even 
so  know  I  the  Father ;  and  I  lay  down  my  life  for 
the  sheep.  And  other  sheep  I  have,  which  are  not 
of  this  fold  :  them  also  I  must  bring,  and  they  shall 
hear  my  voice  ;  and  there  shall  be  one  fold,  and 
one  Shepherd. 

^[  Then  ihe  Bishop,  sitting  in  his  chair,  shall  sny  unto  them 
[that  are  to  be  ordered  Priestt]  as  hereof ter  followeth. 

You  have  heard,  Brethren  (27),  as  well  in  your 
private  examination,  as  in  the  exhortation  which 
was  now  made  to  you,  and  in  the  holy  Lessons  taken 
out  of  the  Gospel,  and  the  writings  of  the  Apostles, 
of  what  dignity,  and  of  how  great  importance  this 
Office  is,  whereunto  ye  are  called.  And  now  again 
we  exhort  you,  in  the  Name  of  our  Lord  Jesus 
Christ,  that  you  have  in  remembrance,  into  how 

27.    Ye  have  heard,  Brethren. 

This  address  and  the  following  questions  are  a  peculiar 
feature  of  the  English  Ordinal.  It  has  been  thought 
that  they  may  have  been  modelled  on  the  corresponding 
part  of  the  Office  for  the  Consecration  of  Bishops  (cf. 
Procter,  B.  of  C.  P.  p.  437.  and  Palmer,  Orig.  Lit.  xii.  §  7), 
The  Pontificals  of  Salzburg,  Soissons,  Cambrai,  and 
Mainz  have  a  public  examination  of  the  ordinand. 
"Dost  thou  wish  to  receive  the  degree  of  the  presbyterate 
in  the  name  of  the  Lord  ?  Dost  thou  wish,  as  far  as  thou 
art  able,  and  human  frailty  permits  thee,  to  remain  in 
that  degree  ?  Dost  thou  wish  to  be  obedient  to  thy 
Bishop  to  whose  diocese  thou  art  to  be  ordained  1 " 
(D.  C.A.u.  1513). 


high  a  Dignity,  and  to  how  weighty  an  Office  (28) 
and  Charge  ye  are  called :  that  is  to  say,  to  be 
Messengers,  Watchmen,  and  Stewards  of  the  Lord  ; 
to  teach,  and  to  premonish,  to  feed  and  provide  for 
the  Lord's  family ;  to  seek  for  Christ's  sheep  that 
are  dispersed  abroad,  and  for  his  children  who  are 
in  the  midst  of  this  naughty  world,  that  they  may 
be  saved  through  Christ  for  ever. 

Have  always  therefore  printed  in  your  remem 
brance,  how  great  a  treasure  is  committed  to  your 
charge.  For  they  are  the  sheep  of  Christ  (29),  which 

28.  How  high  a  Dignity,  and  how  weighty  an  Office. 

"  From  this  time  forward,  well  beloved  brother,  know 
that  thou  hast  undertaken  a  right  heavy  load  of  labour. 
This  responsibility  is  the  supreme  art  of  the  guidance  of 
souls.  Thou  must  be  subject  to  many  men's  manners  and 
ways.  Thou  must  be  all  men's  minister,  and  for  the 
talent  entrusted  to  thee  thou  wilt  have  in  the  day  of 
judgement  to  render  an  account.  If  our  Saviour  said, 
'  I  came  not  to  be  ministered  to,  but  to  minister,'  how 
much  more  are  we  slothful  servants  of  the  Most  High 
Head  of  the  household  (summi  Patrisfamilias)  bound  with 
hardest  toil  to  strive  that,  by  the  aid  of  the  Divine  grace, 
we  may  be  enabled  to  bring  the  Lord's  sheep,  committed 
to  us  by  the  chief  Shepherd,  free  from  plagvie  and  spot  to 
the  Lord's  fold  1 "  (Exhortatio  ad  novum  Episcopum,  ex 
MS.  Pontif.  Turon.  Martene,  ii.  59). 

Messenger ^'ATTooroXoy,  i.e.  one  sent  with  a  commission 
from  the  Lord  (Matt.  x.  2,  &c.). 

Watchman  —  6  yprjyopuv,  i.  e.  the  wakeful  (Matt.  xxiv. 
42,  &c.). 

Steward  =  oiKoi>o'/io?,  i.e.  house-feeder  (Luke  xii.  42,  &c.). 

The  names  are  all  of  the  Lord's  giving. 

29.  The  sheep  of  Christ. 

"  The  people  expect  thee  to  bring  food  to  them,  to  wit, 
the  teaching  of  the  Scriptures.  Whenever,  then,  the 
expectant  folk  are  hungry,  and  thou  nurturest  thyself 
alone,  and  our  Lord  Jesus  Christ  cometh,  and  we  stand 
before  Him,  what  kind  of  defence  couldst  thou  have,  He 


he  bought  with  his  death,  and  for  whom  he  shed 
his  blood.  The  Church  and  Congregation  whom  you 
must  serve,  is  his  Spouse,  and  his  Body.  And  if 
it  shall  happen  the  same  Church,  or  any  Member 
thereof,  to  take  any  hurt  or  hindrance  by  reason  of 
your  negligence,  ye  know  the  greatness  of  the  fault, 
and  also  the  horrible  punishment  that  will  ensue. 
Wherefore  consider  with  yourselves  the  end  of  your 
Ministry  towards  the  children  of  God,  towards  the 
Spouse  and  Body  of  Christ ;  and  see  that  you  never 
cease  your  labour,  your  care  and  diligence,  until 
you  have  done  all  that  lieth  in  you,  according  to 
your  bounden  duty,  to  bring  all  such  as  are  or  shall 
be  committed  to  your  charge,  unto  that  agreement 
in  the  faith  and  knowledge  of  God,  and  to  that  ripe 
ness  and  perfectness  of  age  in  Christ,  that  there  be 
no  place  left  among  you,  either  for  error  in  religion, 
or  for  viciousness  in  life. 

Forasmuch  then  as  your  Office  is  both  of  so  great 
excellency,  and  of  so  great  difficulty,  ye  see  with 
how  great  care  and  study  ye  ought  to  apply  your 
selves  (30),  as  well  that  ye  may  shew  yourselves 

seeing  His  own  sheep  a  hungered  1 "  (Athan.  Ep.  ad 

The  time  "  pastoral "  character  of  the  Shepherd  of  the 
Gospel  is  in  danger  of  being  lost  in  the  English 
"  shepherd,"  which  means  getter  and  keeper  of  sheep 
into  a  herd  (origin  unknown).  This  "  herding  "  is  easier 
than  the  essential  business  of  the  pastor  or  iroi^v  (  -V/PA), 
which  =  feeder.  Milton  had  in  mind  this  characteristic 
when  he  wrote,  "  The  hungry  sheep  look  up  and  are  not 
fed."  The  Good  Shepherd  does  nut  merely  recover  and 
fold  ;  he  feeds  on  the  "  green  pasture." 

30.  Apply  yourselves. 

"'No  man  that  warreth  (for  God)  entangleth  himself 
with  the  affairs  of  this  life,  that  he  may  please  Him  to 


dutiful  and  thankful  unto  that  Lord,  who  hath 
placed  you  in  so  high  a  Dignity  ;  as  also  to  beware, 
that  neither  you  yourselves  offend,  nor  be  occasion 

whom  he  hath  approved  himself  (cf.  Vulg.).  This  is 
said  of  all  men,  but  how  much  more  ought  the  clergy  to 
he  free  from  the  entanglement  of  worldly  cares  and 
snares  ?  They  are  husied  about  divine  and  spiritual 
things ;  for  them  it  is  impossible  to  withdraw  from  the 
Church,  and  find  leisure  for  earthly  and  worldly  pursuits. 
The  form  of  this  ordination  and  sacred  office  was  of  old 
under  the  Law  held  by  the  Levites,  the  whole  of  which 
(state  of  things)  was  brought  about  by  divine  authority 
and  arrangement,  to  the  end  that  they  who  were  engaged 
in  divine  duties  might  under  no  circumstances  be  called 
away,  nor  be  driven  to  deal  with  the  things  of  this  world 
in  thought  or  act.  The  same  form  and  method  now 
obtains  among  the  clergy,  to  the  end  that  they  who  are 
given  promotion  in  the  Lord's  Church  by  clerical  ordina 
tion  may  in  no  wise  be  called  away  from  divine  minis 
tration,  nor  bound  down  to  the  anxieties  and  business  of 
this  world  "  (Cyp.  Ep.  Ixvi). 

"  To-day,  brethren,  warns  me  to  think  very  seriously 
of  the  burden  I  bear ;  though  I  meditate  on  the  weight 
of  this  burden  by  day  and  by  night,  yet  somehow  the 
recurrence  of  this  anniversary  so  violently  affects  me  that 
I  cannot  disguise  my  thinking  of  it  and  of  it  alone  "  (Aug. 
in  die  ordinationis  suae,  Serin.  339). 

"  Let  neither  bishop,  priest,  nor  deacon,  take  upon  him 
worldly  cares  "  (Cann.  Apost.  iv). 

"It  is  my  will  that  all  within  the  province  entrusted 
to  thee  in  the  Catholic  Church,  presided  over  by  Caecilianus, 
who  give  their  ministry  to  this  holy  religion,  who  are 
commonly  styled  clerics,  be  kept  wholly  exempt  from  all 
official  public  duties  (Xftroupyiw^),  to  the  end  that  they  be 
not  through  any  error  or  sacrilegious  backsliding  with 
drawn  from  the  service  due  to  the  Deity,  but  may  rather 
without  any  hindrance  fulfil  their  ministry  to  their  own 
law.  For  when  their  diligence  in  their  worship  in  rela 
tion  to  the  divine  is  greatest,  it  seems  likely  that  the 
greatest  possible  good  will  accrue  to  the  state "  (Emp. 
Constantine,  Ep.  ad  Anulinuna  apud  Euseb.  //.  E.  x.  7). 


that  others  offend.  Howbeit,  ye  cannot  have  a  mind 
and  will  thereto  of  yourselves  ;  for  that  will  and 
ability  is  given  of  God  alone :  therefore  ye  ought, 
and  have  need,  to  pray  earnestly  for  his  holy  Spirit. 
And  seeing  that  you  cannot  by  any  other  means 
compass  the  doing  of  so  weighty  a  work,  pertaining 
to  the  salvation  of  man.  but  with  doctrine  and 
exhortation  taken  out  of  the  holy  Scriptures,  and 
with  a  life  agreeable  to  the  same ;  consider  how 
studious  ye  ought  to  be  in  reading  and  learning  the 
Scriptures,  and  in  framing  the  manners  both  of 
yourselves,  and  of  them  that  specially  pertain  unto 
you,  according  to  the  rule  of  the  same  Scriptures : 
and  for  this  self-same  cause,  how  ye  ought  to  for 
sake  and  set  aside  (as  much  as  you  may)  all  worldly 
cares  and  studies. 

We  have  good  hope  that  you  have  well  weighed 
and  pondered  these  things  with  yourselves  long 
before  this  time ;  and  that  you  have  clearly  deter 
mined,  by  God's  grace,  to  give  yourselves  wholly 
to  this  Office,  whereunto  it  hath  pleased  God  to 
call  you  :  so  that,  as  much  as  lieth  in  you,  you  will 
apply  yourselves  wTholly  to  this  one  thing,  and 
draw  all  your  cares  and  studies  this  way  ;  and  that 

"  Of  whyche  charge  and  burden  we  wyll  all  pastours 
and  preachers  to  be  admonished  to  the  entente  that  they 
may  busely  exercise  themselves  daye  and  nyghte  in  the 
studye  of  the  Holy  Scriptures,  and  &o  use  their  ministerie 
with  ample  fruite,  and  for  th;it  respect  withdrawe  them 
selves  not  onely  frome  wordely  intisements  and  carnal 
concupiscences,  but  also  from  all  occupations,  and  affaires 
of  the  worlde,  as  much  as  the  use  of  the  present  life  wyll 
suffer,  that  they  may  altogether  fully  applye  so  harde 
and  divine  a  ministerie,  and  execute  their  office  with  all 
diligence "  (Archbp.  Hermann's  Consultation  (Trans,  of 
1548),  6). 


you  will  continually  pray  to  God  the  Father,  by 
the  Mediation  of  our  only  Saviour  Jesus  Christ, 
for  the  heavenly  assistance  of  the  Holy  Ghost ; 
that,  by  daily  reading  and  weighing  of  the  Scrip 
tures  (31),  ye  may  wax  riper  and  stronger  in  your 
Ministry  ;  and  that  ye  may  so  endeavour  your 
selves,  from  time  to  time,  to  sanctify  the  lives  of 
you  and  yours,  and  to  fashion  them  after  the  Kule 
and  Doctrine  of  Christ,  that  ye  may  be  wholesome 
and  godly  examples  and  patterns  for  the  people  to 

And  now,  that  this  present  Congregation  of  Christ 
here  assembled  may  also  understand  your  minds 
and  wills  in  these  things,  and  that  this  your  pro 
mise  may  the  more  move  you  to  do  your  duties,  ye 

31.  Daily  reading  and  weighing  of  the  Scriptures. 

"  Ignorance,  mother  of  all  vices,  is  above  everything  to 
be  avoided  in  God's  priests.  .  .  .  Priests  are  admonished 
to  read  the  Holy  Scriptures "  (Cone.  Tolet.  iv.  25). 
"  That  meditating  in  thy  Law,  by  day  and  by  night,  they 
may  believe  what  they  have  read,  teach  what  they  have 
believed,  imitate  what  they  have  taught,  and  at  once 
show  forth  in  themselves,  prove  by  example,  and  confirm 
by  admonitii  n,  justice,  constancy,  mercy,  and  courage  " 
(Sacr.  Gelas.  ed.  H.  A.  Wilson,  p.  24,  cf.  p.  83). 

"  That  all  the  ministers  of  the  Gospel  read  often  and 
ponder  the  whole  divine  Scripture,  with  the  i'eare  of 
God,  and  exquisite  diligence,  boeth  that  they  them  selves 
may  be  better  learned  and  also  that  they  may  enstruct 
others "  (Archbp.  Hermann's  Consultation  (Trans,  of 
1548),  14). 

"  It  is  a  plain  defection  from  the  faith,  and  a  proof 
of  arrogance,  either  to  reject  anything  of  what  is  written, 
or  to  introduce  anything  that  is  not  "  (St.  Basil,  de  Fide,  i). 

"  If  ever  the  Lord  grant  us  to  meet,  I  will  discourse  to 
you  further  concerning  the  Faith,  to  end  that  you  may 
perceive  at  once  the  power  of  the  truth  and  the  rottenness 
of  heresy  by  Scriptural  proof"  (St.  Basil,  Ep.  cv). 


shall  answer  plainly  to  these  things,  which  we  in 
the  Name  of  God,  and  of  his  Church,  shall  demand 
of  you  touching  the  same. 

Do  you  think  in  your  heart  (32),  that  you  be  truly 
called,  according  to  the  will  of  our  Lord  Jesus  Christ, 
and  the  order  of  this  Church  of  England,  to  the 
Order  and  Ministry  of  Priesthood  ? 

Ans^ver.   I  think  it. 

The  Bishop. 

Are  you  persuaded  that  the  holy  Scriptures  contain 
sufficiently  (33)  all  Doctrine  required  of  necessity 

32.  Do  you  think  in  your  heart,  &c. 
Cf.AIed.Pont.ap.  Martene,  Ecc.  Rit.  ii.  146 ;  Procter,  437. 

"  BP.  Is  he  worthy  1  R.  He  is  worthy.  BP.  Is  he  just  ? 
R.  He  is  just.  BP.  God  grant  that  he  may  ever  remain 
worthy  and  just  in  his  service.  Then  the  Bishop  ques 
tions  the  Presbyter  in  these  words.  BP.  Are  you  \villing 
to  receive  the  degree  of  the  presbyterate  in  the  name  of 
the  Lord  ?  R.  I  am  willing.  BP.  Are  you  willing  in 
the  same  degree  according  to  the  measure  of  your  ability 
and  understanding  to  abide  continually  by  the  sanctions 
of  the  canons  ?  R.  I  am  willing.  BP.  Are  you  willing 
to  be  obedient  to  and  of  one  mind  with  your  Bishop  to 
whose  diocese  (parochia,  TrapoiKia,  originally  place  where 
the  brethren  sojourned,  TrapoiKfiv,  and  then  the  district 
under  the  Episcopus ;  so  later  paroisse,  parish)  you  are 
to  be  ordained  in  accordance  with  what  is  right  and  with 
your  ministry  ?  R.  I  am  willing.  BP.  May  God  deign 
to  bring  this  your  good  and  right  will  to  perfection  agree 
able  to  Him." 

33.  Are  you  persuaded  that  the  Holy  Scriptures  contain 
sufficiently  ?  &c. 

"  I  adore  the  fulness  of  Scripture.  ...  If  it  is  not  written, 
let  him  dread  the  wo  that  is  the  doom  of  all  them  that 
add  or  take  away  "  (Tert.  c.  Hermog.  xxii). 

"  These  "  (i.  e.  the  Books  of  Scripture)  "  are  the  springs 
of  salvation,  so  that  he  who  thirsts  is  filled  full  from  the 
oracles  contained  therein.  In  these  alone  let  the  school  of 


for  eternal  salvation  through  faith  in  Jesus  Christ  ? 
and  are  you  determined,  out  of  the  said  Scriptures 
to  instruct  the  people  committed  to  your  charge, 
and  to  teach  nothing  as  required  of  necessity  to 
eternal  salvation,  but  that  which  you  shall  be  per 
suaded  may  be  concluded  and  proved  by  the 
Scripture  1 

Answer.  I  am  so  persuaded,  and  have  so  deter 
mined  by  God's  grace. 

The  Bishop. 

Will  you  then  give  your  faithful  diligence  always 
so  to  minister  the  Doctrine  and  Sacraments,  and 
the  Discipline  of  Christ,  as  the  Lord  hath  com 
manded  (34),  and  as  this  Church  and  Realm  hath 

true  religion  be  preached.  To  these  let  none  add  ;  from 
these  let  none  take  aught  away  "  (Athan.  Ep.  xxxix.  6). 
"  Let  God-inspired  Scripture  decide  between  us ;  on 
whichever  side  be  found  doctrines  in  harmony  with 
the  word  of  God,  in  favour  of  that  side  will  be  cast 
the  vote  of  truth  "  (St.  Basil,  Ep.  clxxxix.  3). 

"  Believe  those  things  which  are  written,  the  things 
which  are  not  written  seek  not "  (Id.  Horn.  xxix.  adv. 
Cal.  S.  Trin.). 

"  By  the  Divine  Word  we  perform  each  and  all  of 
everything  that  contributes  to  our  soul's  health  "  (Chrysost. 
de  Sacerd.  iv.  3). 

34.  As  the  Lord  hath  commanded. 

"  We  ought  to  perform  in  order  all  things  that  the 
Master  hath  commanded  us  to  perform  at  their  appointed 
seasons.  Both  the  offerings  and  the  services  He  ordered 
to  be  performed  with  care,  and  that  they  should  not  come 
about  at  random  and  in  irregular  fashion,  but  at  fixed 
times  and  seasons.  Both  where  and  by  whom  He  wills 
them  to  be  performed  He  Himself  fixed  by  His  supreme 
will ;  to  the  end  that  all  things  being  done  with  piety 
by  His  good  pleasure  might  be  acceptable  to  His 
good- will.  It  is  they  then  who  make  their  offerings  at 
the  ordained  times  who  are  both  accepted  and  blessed, 


received  the  same,  according  to  the  Command 
ments  of  God ;  so  that  you  may  teach  the  people 

because  in  following  the  laws  of  the  Master  they  do  not 
err.  For  to  the  High  Priest  are  assigned  peculiar  ser 
vices,  and  for  the  Priests  their  own  special  office  is  fixed, 
and  to  the  Levites  proper  ministrations  are  enjoined.  The 
layfolk  are  bound  by  the  layman's  laws  "  (Clem.  Horn.  Ep. 
ad  Corinth,  xl). 

"  At  the  outset  I  maintain  that  there  is  some  one  and 
definite  thing  instituted  by  Christ,  which  the  nations  are 
by  all  means  bound  to  believe,  and  therefore  to  seek  that 
they  may,  when  they  have  found,  believe.  There  can  be 
BO  indefinite  search  for  that  which  is  instituted  as  one 
only  definite  thing.  You  must  seek  until  you  find,  and 
believe  when  you  have  found ;  nor  have  you  anything 
further  to  do  than  to  keep  what  you  have  believed,  pro 
vided  you  moreover  believe  this,  that  nothing  else  is  to 
be  believed,  and  therefore  nothing  else  is  to  be  sought, 
after  you  have  found  and  believed  what  is  instituted 
by  Him,  who  charges  you  to  seek  no  other  thing  than 
that  which  He  has  instituted"  (Tertullian,  de  Praescr. 
Haeret.  ix). 

"Jesus  Christ  our  Lord  did,  whilst  He  lived  on  earth, 
Himself  declare  what  He  was,  what  He  had  been,  what  was 
the  Father's  will  which  He  was  administering,  what  was 
the  duty  of  man  which  He  was  prescribing.  He  declared 
this  either  openly  to  the  people,  or  privately  to  His  dis 
ciples,  of  whom  He  had  chosen  twelve  heads  to  be  at  His 
side,  whom  He  ordained  to  be  the  teachers  of  the  nations. 
So,  when  one  of  these  had  been  cut  off,  on  His  departure 
to  the  Father  He  commanded  the  eleven  others  to  go  and 
teach  all  nations,  who  were  to  be  baptized  into  the 
Father,  and  into  the  Son,  and  into  the  Holy  Ghost.  .  .  . 
Having  .  .  .  chosen  Matthias  by  lot  as  the  twelfth  .  .  .  they 
went  forth  into  the  world,  and  preached  the  same  doctrine 
of  the  same  faith  to  the  nations.  They  then  in  like 
manner  founded  churches  in  every  city,  from  which  all 
the  other  churches,  one  after  the  other,  borrowed  the 
tradition  of  the  Faith,  and  the  seeds  of  doctrine,  and  are 
every  day  borrowing  them  that  they  may  become  churches. 
Indeed  it  is  thus  only  that  they  can  be  deemed  Apos 
tolic,  as  being  offshoots  of  Apostolic  Churches  "  (Id.  xx). 


committed  to  your  Cure  and  Charge  with  all  dili 
gence  to  keep  and  observe  the  same  ?  (35) 

Answer.   I  will  so  do,  by  the  help  of  the  Lord. 

35.  As  this  Church  and  Realm  hath  received  the  same. 
See  "  Declaration,"  p.  6.  On  the  one  hand,  on  the  inviola 
bility  of  certain  traditions,  e.g.  the  baptism  of  infants, 
concerning  which  "  the  Church  has  received  the  tradition 
from  the  Apostles  "  (Origen,  ad  Rom.  v) ;  cf.  Epiphanius, 
Haeres.  Ixxv.  8.  "  Our  Mother,  the  Church,  had  laws 
lying  in  her  indissoluble,  that  cannot  be  undone,"  and 
the  various  forms  both  of  creed  and  liturgy,  alike  in 
East  and  West.  It  would  seem  that  the  rise  of  heresies 
necessitated  a  stereotyping  of  the  Creed,  while  the  liturgies 
of  Antioch,  Constantinople,  Alexandria,  Rome,  Gaul,  and 
Spain  showed  a  variety  in  non-essentials  (see  Bp.  H. 
Browne,  On  Art.  XXXIV;  Bingham,  E.  A.,  II.  vi;  and 
Palmer,  Or.  Liturg.  On  the  other  hand,  on  what  is  within 
the  sphere  of  national  adjustment,  cf.  Augustine,  Ep.  ad 
Januar.  liv  :  "  He  did  not  lay  down  directions  accord 
ing  to  what  order  (the  Holy  Supper)  was  to  be  taken, 
that  He  might  keep  this  office  for  the  Apostles,  by  and 
through  whom  He  was  about  to  ordain  the  Churches." — 
"  When  I,"  i.  e.  St.  Ambrose,  "  come  to  Borne,  I  fast  on  the 
Sabbath,  and  when  I  am  here,  I  do  not  fast ;  so  do  thou 
likewise,  to  whatsoever  church  thou  mayst  haply  come, 
observe  its  customs,  if  thou  wish  to  give  offence  to  no  one, 
nor  to  thyself." 

On  local  uniformity  cf.  Council  of  Toledo,  A.D.633,iv.c.2. 
"  After  the  confession  of  the  true  faith  which  is  preached 
in  the  Holy  Church  of  God,  it  hath  seemed  good  that  all 
we  priests,  who  are  embraced  in  the  unity  of  the  Catholic 
Faith,  do  nothing  diverse  or  inharmonious  in  Church 
affairs,  lest  any  diversity  of  ours  may  seem  to  show  any 
error  of  carnal  schism,  and  the  variety  of  Churches  be  to 
many  a  cause  of  scandal.  Therefore  let  one  order  of 
prayer  and  praise  be  observed  by  us  throughout  all  Spain 
and  Gaul,  one  mode  of  celebrating  the  solemnities  of 
masses,  one  for  matins  and  evensong,  and  let  there  be  no 
diverse  ecclesiastical  usage  among  us,  forasmuch  as  we  are 
contained  in  one  Faith  and  Realm.  This  was  decreed  by 
the  ancient  canons.  And  let  every  province  contain 



The  Bishop. 

Will  you  be  ready,  with  all  faithful  diligence,  to 
banish  and  drive  away  all  erroneous  and  strange  doc 
trines  (36)  contrary  to  God's  word ;  and  to  use  both 
publick  and  private  monitions  (37)  and  exhortations, 

a  like  usage  both  of  praise  and  prayer  "  (psallendi  et  mini- 

36.  Banish  and  drive  away  all  erroneous  and  strange 

i.  e.  doctrine  at  variance  with  that  of  Scripture  and  the 

"  We  have  learned  the  ordering  of  our  salvation  through 
none  others  than  those  through  whom  the  Gospel  has 
come  down  to  us.  This  they  once  upon  a  time  openly 
preached.  Afterwards,  by  God's  will,  they  committed  it 
to  us  in  the  Scriptures,  to  be  the  ground  and  pillar  of  our 
faith."  "  Again.when  we  refer  opponents  of  tradition,  which 
starts  from  the  Apostles,  and  which  is  preserved  by  means 
of  the  successions  of  presbyters  in  the  Churches,  they  will 
urge  that  they  themselves  are  wiser,  not  only  than  pres 
byters,  but  even  than  Apostles,  because  they  have  dis 
covered  the  truth  undefiled."  '•'  These  men  therefore 
agree  with  neither  Scripture  nor  tradition  "  (Ir.  Haer. 
iii.  i,  2). 

"  Whenever  the  soul  falls  sick  of  spurious  doctrines 
then  is  there  abundant  need  of  the  Word,  not  only  for  the 
security  of  our  own  folk,  but  also  for  wars  against  them 
that  are  without"  (Chrysost.  de  S.  iv.  3). 

"  A  handler  and  teacher  of  the  divine  Scriptures  as 
a  defender  of  the  right  faith,  and  a  destroyer  of  error, 
ought  both  to  teach  what  is  good  and  unteach  what  is 
bad"  (Aug.  de  Doct.  Christ,  iv.  4). 

"  Grant  this,  also,  merciful  Father,  that  all  strange 
doctrines,  in  which  Christ  is  not  learned,  may  be  thrust 
out  of  Thy  Church"  (Marshall's  Prymer,  p.  61). 

37.  Both  publick  and  private  monitions. 

"  Some  are  righted  by  consolation,  others  by  rebuke. 
And  this  latter  avails  in  some  cases  where  men  are 
convicted  in  public,  in  others  where  men  are  chidden 


as  well  to  the  sick  as  to  the  whole  (38),  within  your 
Cures,  as  need  shall  require,  and  occasion  shall  be 
given  ? 

Ans^ver.   I  will,  the  Lord  being  my  helper. 

The  Bishop. 

Will  you  be  diligent  in  Prayers  (39),  and  in  read 
ing  of  the  holy  Scriptures  (40),  and  in  such  studies 
as  help  to  the  knowledge  of  the  same,  laying  aside 
the  study  of  the  world  and  the  flesh  (41)? 

secretly.  For  there  are  some  who  despise  rebukes  pri 
vately  administered,  while  they  are  sobered  by  public 
condemnation.  Others,  on  the  contrary,  show  a  shameless 
front  when  they  are  called  freely  and  openly  to  account, 
but  are  influenced  for  good  by  the  rebuke  given  in  secret, 
and  requite  sympathy  with  docility"  (Greg.  Naz.  Or.  ii). 

38.  As  well  to  the  sick  as  to  the  whole. 

Cf.  Polycarp,  ad  Phil.  vi.  "  Merciful  priests  .  .  . 
visiting  all  who  are  sick,  neglecting  neither  widow,  nor 
fatherless,  nor  poor." 

39.  Diligent  in  Prayer. 

"  Whosoever  cf  the  Priests  or  subordinate  clergy  shall 
have  omitted  the  Lord's  Prayer  daily,  either  in  public 
or  private  service,  let  him  be  deprived  of  the  dignity  of 
his  order"  (Cone.  Tolet.  iv.  10  ;  Labbe,  v.  1708  E). 

40.  In  reading  of  the  Holy  Scripture. 

"  It  is  necessary  that  you  be  very  diligent  in  reading, 
laborious  and  assiduous  in  the  study  of,  Scripture.  .  .  .  The 
minister  may  as  well  sin  by  his  ignorance  as  by  his  negli 
gence."  Bp.  Jeremy  Taylor,  The  Minister's  Duty  in  Life 
and  Doctrine,  x. 

41.  Laying  aside  the  study  of  the  world  and  the  flesh. 

"  Do  you  wish  to  be  always  devoted  to  God's  business, 
and,  so  far  as  our  human  frailty  shall  have  permitted, 
estranged  from  the  business  of  this  world  and  from  vile 
gain  ?  "  R.  "  I  do  wish."  MS.  Pont,  for  the  use  of  the 
Church  of  Tours,  A.  D.  650  (Martene,  ii.  56). 

"  Consider  what  it  is  to  take  the  lead  of  the  holy 
nation  ;  reflect  what  kind  of  thing  it  is  to  be  occupied  in 

E  2 


Answer.  I  will  endeavour  myself  so  to  do,  the 
Lord  being  my  helper. 

The  Bishop. 

Will  you  be  diligent  to  frame  and  fashion  your 
own  selves,  and  your  families,  according  to  the 
Doctrine  of  Christ ;  and  to  make  both  yourselves 
and  them  as  much  as  in  you  lieth,  wholesome 
examples  and  patterns  to  the  flock  of  Christ  1 

Answer.  I  will  apply  myself  thereto,  the  Lord 
being  my  helper.  • 

The  Bishop. 

Will  you  maintain  and  set  forwards,  as  much  as 
lieth  in  you,  quietness,  peace,  and  love  (42)  among 

the  divine  sacraments.  They  who  live  of  the  altar  ought 
to  have  mind  and  time  unoccupied  for  the  altar ;  an  atten 
tion  to  purity  and  simplicity,  befits  the  sacraments  in 
proportion  as  the  sacraments  themselves  are  pure  and 
simple,  whereby  they  show  forth  the  duties  of  their  min 
istry  lest  against  God  they  do  despite  to  what  they  handle, 
or  against  the  people  begin  to  hinder  what  they  preach  " 
(De  Singularitate  Clericorum  dtt.  to  St.  Aug.). 

"  If  he  is  a  Priest,  let  him  know  the  law  of  the  Lord  ; 
if  he  is  ignorant  of  the  law  of  the  Lord,  he  proves  himself 
to  be  no  Priest  of  the  Lord ;  for  it  is  a  Priest's  duty  to 
know  the  law,  and,  if  asked,  to  answer  about  the  law " 
(St.  Jerome  on  Haggai). 

The  shepherds  on  the  eve  of  the  Great  Birth,  round 
whom  the  glory  of  the  Lord  shone,  who  saw  and  heard  the 
multitude  of  the  army  of  heaven,  were  not,  as  Milton 
conjectured,  "  simply  chatting  in  a  rustic  row"  ;  if  it  was 
"  their  loves  .  . .  that  did  their  silly  thoughts  so  busy  keep," 
it  was  their  love  for  "their  sheep;"  for,  according  to  the 
Evangelist,  they  were  keeping  wakeful  watch  over  their 

42.  Set  forward  .  .  .  quietness,  peace,  and  love. 
Cf.  Constantine  at  the  Council  of  Nicaea  (Soz.  Hist.  \. 
19)  :   "  For  everything,"  said  the  Emperor,  "am  I  grateful 


all  Christian  people,  and  especially  among  them  that 
are  or  shall  be  committed  to  your  charge  1 

Ansicer.   I  will  so  do,  the  Lord  being  my  helper. 

The  -Bishop. 

Will  you  reverently  obey  your  Ordinary  (43),  and 
other  chief  Ministers,  unto  whom  is  committed  the 

to  God,  and  not  least  for  this,  that  I  now,  my  friends,  look 
on  your  assembly.  To  me,  indeed,  it  hath  befallen  better 
than  I  had  hoped,  to  bring  so  many  sacred  ministers 
(iepeas)  of  Christ  together  in  one  place.  And  I  would 
wish  that  I  might  behold  you  of  one  mind,  and  possessed 
of  a  sentiment  of  harmonious  concord.  For  in  my  judge 
ment  the  worst  evil  of  all  evils  is  that  the  Church  of  God 
should  be  the  prey  of  faction  (arao-ia^ti').  So  when  I  heard 
— as  would  to  God  I  had  never  heard — I  was  deeply 
grieved  on  hearing  that  you  were  divided — you  who  of  all 
men  division  misbecomes,  in  that  you  are  God's  ministers 
(Xfirovp-yous)  and  heralds  of  peace.  It  is  for  this  cause 
that  I  have  summoned  your  holy  synod.  At  once  as  your 
sovereign  and  your  fellow-servant,  I  do  ask  from  you 
a  favour,  pleasing  to  God,  who  is  your  Lord  and  mine,  and 
becoming  alike  for  me  to  receive  and  for  you  to  grant. 
It  is  this,  that  you  openly  discuss  the  causes  of  the  dis 
agreement,  and  bring  them  to  a  peaceful  end.  Thus  by 
your  aid  I  shall  raise  this  trophy  of  victory  over  our 
envious  enemy,  who,  now  that  strangers  and  tyrants  have 
been  put  out  of  our  borders,  has  stirred  this  intestine 
sedition,  because  of  his  grudge  against  the  good  things 
we  enjoy." 

43.  Obey  your  Ordinary.    Cf.  note  23,  and  Oath  on  p.  6. 

"  Should  any  cleric  have  any  complaint  against  a  cleric, 
let  him  not  leave  his  own  Bishop  and  have  recourse  to 
secular  courts ;  let  him  rather  lay  the  matter  bare  before 
his  own  Bishop,  or  by  the  consent  of  the  Bishop  himself, 
let  the  case  be  argued  out  before  arbitrators  chosen  by 
both  parties.  If  any  one  act  in  contravention  of  these 
directions,  let  him  lie  under  canonical  censure.  But  if 
a  clerk  have  a  matter  for  judgement,  either  with  his  own 
Bishop,  or  with  another  Bishop,  he  must  plead  his  cause 


charge  and  government  over  you  ;  following  with 
a  glad  mind  and  will  their  godly  admonitions,  and 
submitting  yourselves  to  their  godly  judgements  ? 
A  nswer.   I  will  so  do,  the  Lord  being  my  helper. 

TI  Then  shall  the  Bishop,  standing  up,  say  (44), 

Almighty  God,  who  hath  given  you  this  will  to 
do  all  these  things ;  Grant  also  unto  you  strength 
and  power  to  perform  the  same  ;  that  he  may 
accomplish  his  work  which  he  hath  begun  in  you  ; 
through  Jesus  Christ  our  Lord.  Amen. 

before  the  synod  of  the  province.  And  if  there  be  a  con 
tention  between  a  Bishop  or  a  clerk  and  the  metropolitan 
of  a  province,  he  must  go  to  the  head  of  that  administra 
tion  or  to  the  throne1  of  the  imperial  city,  Constanti- 
nopolis  "  (Canons  of  Chalcedon,  ix  ;  cf.  Gr.  B.  Howard's 
translation,  p.  64). 

"  A  sure  cause  of  heresy  and  schism  has  arisen  when 
the  Bishop,  who  is  one,  and  at  the  head  of  the  Church,  is 
by  the  proud  presumption  of  certain  men  treated  with 
contempt  "  (Gyp.  Ep.  Ixix). 

"  Be  subject  to  thy  Bishop,  and  take  him  as  a  parent  of 
thy  soul "  (Jer.  Ep.  Hi). 

"  The  Church's  welfare  depends  on  the  dignity  of  the 
high  priest ;  if  to  him  there  be  not  conceded  a  certain 
peculiar  authority,  standing  out  above  all,  as  many 
schisms  are  caused  in  churches  as  there  are  priests " 
(Jer.  adv.  Lucifer,  ix). 

44.  TJien  shall  the  Bishop,  standing  up,  say. 

In  the  Mediaeval  Pontifical  a  prayer  corresponding  to 
this  was  uttered  during  the  imposition  of  hands. 

"  Afterwards,  while  the  Bishop  is  blessing  them  and 
holding  his  hand  above  their  heads,  saying  nothing  to  them, 
and  touching  them  with  one  hand,  let  all  the  Priests  who 
are  present  hold  their  hands  raised  above  their  heads." 

1  i.e.  the  metropolitan  see  of  Constantinople.  The  notion  of 
universal  Italian  supremacy  is,  of  course,  hardly  above  the  horizon. 
At  Chalcedon  Paschasinus,  Leo's  representative,  signed  as  "  synodo- 
praesidens,"  but  whatever  precedence  was  allowed  to  Rome  and 
Constantinople  was  to  the  two  capitals. 


T  After  this,  the  Congregation  shall  be  desired,  secretly  in  their 
Prayers,  to  make  their  humble  supplications  to  God  for  all  these 
things :  for  the  which  Prayers  there  shall  be  silence  kipt  for 
a  space. 

Tl  After  icMch  shall  be  sung  or  said  by  the  Bishop  (ihe  persons  to 
be  Ordained  Priests  all  kneeling)  Veni,  Creator  Spiritus  (45) ;  the 
Bishop  beginning,  and  the  Priests,  and  others  that  are  present, 
answering  by  verses,  asfolloweth. 

Come,  Holy  Ghost,  our  souls  inspire, 

And  lighten  with  celestial  fire. 

Thou  the  anointing  Spirit  art, 

Who  dost  thy  seven-fold  gifts  impart. 

Thy  blessed  Unction  from  above, 

Is  comfort,  life,  and  fire  of  love. 

Enable  with  perpetual  light 

The  dulness  of  our  blinded  sight. 

Anoint  and  cheer  our  soiled  face 

With  the  abundance  of  thy  grace. 

Keep  far  our  foes,  give  peace  at  home  : 

Where  thou  art  guide,  no  ill  can  come. 

Then  follows  the  "  Praefatio  sacerdotum." 
"  Well-beloved,  let  us  beseech  God,  the  Father  Almighty, 
that  on  these  His  servants  whom  He  has  chosen  for  the 
work  of  the  presbyterate,  He  will  multiply  heavenly  gifts." 

45.  The  Latin  version  of  the  Hymn  Veni,  Creator,  is  as 
follows : — 

Veni,  Creator  Spiritus, 
Mentes  tuorum  visita : 
Imple  superna  gratia 
Quae  Tu  creasti  pectora. 

Qui  Paraclitus  diceris 
Domini  Dei  altissimi : 
Tons  vivus,  ignis,  caritas, 
.    Et  spiritalis  unctio. 

Tu  septiformis  munere, 
Dextrae  Dei  Tu  digitus : 
Tu  rite  promisso  Patris 
Sennone  ditans  guttura. 


Teach  us  to  know  the  Father,  Son, 
And  thee,  of  both,  to  be  but  One. 
That,  through  the  ages  all  along, 
This  may  be  our  endless  song  j 

Praise  to  thy  eternal  merit, 
Father,  Son,  and  Holy  Spirit. 

Or  this: 

Come,  Holy  Ghost,  eternal  God, 

Proceeding  from  above, 
Both  from  the  Father  and  the  Son, 

The  God  of  peace  and  love  ; 

Visit  our  minds,  into  our  hearts 

Thy  heavenly  grace  inspire ; 
That  truth  and  godliness  we  may 

Pursue  ivith  full  desire. 

Accende  lumen  sensibus, 
Infunde  amoiem  cordibus : 
Infirma  nostri  corporis 
Virtute  firmans  perpetim. 

Hostem  repellas  longius, 
Pacemque  clones  protinus 
Ductore  sic  Te  praevio 
Vitemus  omne  noxium. 

Per  Te  sciamus,  da,  Patrem, 
Noscamus  atque  Filium  : 
Te  utriusque  Spiritum 
Credamus  omni  tempore. 

Sit  laus  Patri  cum  Filio 
Sancto  simul  Paraclito : 
Nobisque  mittat  Filius 
Charisma  Sancti  Spiritus. 

The  hymn  has  been  ascribed  to  St.  Ambrose,  but  it  is 
not  included  in  the  Benedictine  edition  of  his  works.     It 


Thou  art  the  very  Comforter 

In  grief  and  all  distress  ; 
The  heav'nly  gift  of  God  most  high, 

No  tongue  can  it  express; 

The  fountain  and  the  living  spring 

Of  joy  celestial; 
The  fire  so  bright,  the  love  so  sweet, 

The   Unction  spiritual. 

Thou  in  thy  gifts  art  manifold, 

By  them  Christ's  Church  doth  stand  : 

In  faithful  hearts  thou  writ'st  thy  laiv, 
The  finger  of  God's  hand. 

According  to  thy  promise,  Lord, 
Thou  givest  speech  with  grace  ; 

That  through  thy  help  God's  praises  may 
Resound  in  every  place. 

O  Holy  Ghost,  into  our  minds 
Send  down  thy  heav'nly  light ; 

Kindle  our  hearts  with  fervent  zeal, 
To  serve  God  day  and  night. 

appears  in  the  Pontifical  of  Soissons  (eleventh  century), 
and  in  all  the  English  Pontificals  except  that  of  Winchester. 
It  has  also  been  assigned  to  Charlemagne  and  to  Rhabanus 
Maurus  (Rabanmaur),  Archbishop  of  Mainz  (t  856).  The 
first  of  the  two  versions  in  the  English  Prayer  Book, 
inserted  in  1662,  has  been  ascribed  to  Dryden,  possibly 
from  a  confusion  with  a  paraphrase  really  composed  by 
him,  and  beginning  "  Creator  Spirit,  by  whose  aid."  It 
is  found  in  Bp.  Cosin's  Private  Devotions  (1627). 

The  Sacramentary  of  Leo  has  the  parallel  prayer : 
"  Emitte  in  eos,  Domine,  quaesumus,  Spiritum  Sanctum 
quo,  in  opus  ministerii  fideliter  exequendi,  munere  septi- 
formi  tuae  gratiae  roborentur ; "  and  that  of  Gelasius, 
"  Sensibus  nostris,  quaesumus,  Domine,  lumen  Sanctum 
tuum  benignus  infunde." 


Our  weakness  strengthen  and  confirm, 
(For,  Lord,  thou  know'st  us  frail ;) 

That  neither  devil,  world,  nor  flesh, 
Against  us  may  prevail. 

Put  back  our  enemy  far  from  us, 

And  help  us  to  obtain 
Peace  in  our  hearts  with  God  and  man, 

(The  best,  the  truest  gain  ;) 

And  grant  that  thou  being,  O  Lord, 

Our  leader  and  our  guide, 
We  may  escape  the  snares  of  sin, 

And  never  from  thee  slide. 

Such  measures  of  thy  powerful  grace 
Grant,  Lord,  to  us,  we  pray  ; 

That  thou  may'st  be  our  Comforter 
At  the  last  dreadful  day. 

Of  strife  and  of  dissention 
Dissolve,  O  Lord,  the  bands, 

And  knit  the  knots  of  peace  and  love 
Throughout  all  Christian  lands. 

Grant  us  the  grace  that  we  may  know 

The  Father  of  all  might, 
That  we  of  his  beloved  Son 

May  gain  the  blissful  sight ; 

And  that  we  may  with  perfect  faith 

Ever  acknowledge  thee, 
The  Spirit  of  Father,  and  of  Son, 

One  God  in  Persons  Three. 

To  God  the  Father  laud  and  praise, 

And  to  his  blessed  Son, 
And  to  the  Holy  Spirit  of  grace, 

Co-equal  Three  in  One. 


And  pray  we,  that  our  only  Lord 
Would  please  his  Spirit  to  send 

On  all  that  shall  profess  his  Name, 

From  hence  to  the  ivorld's  end.     Amen. 

T  That  done,  the  Bishop  shall  pray  in  this  «n'se(46),  and  say, 

Let  us  pray. 

Almighty  God,  and  heavenly  Father,  who,  of 
thine  infinite  love  and  goodness  towards  us,  hast 
given  to  us  thy  only  and  most  dearly  beloved  Son 

46.  That  done,  the  Bishop  shall  pray  in  this  wise,  &c. 

"Holy  Lord,  Almighty  Father,  Eternal  God,  Who 
appointest  all  good  gifts  and  all  dignities,  which  are 
doing  battle  for  Thee  ...  by  this  Thy  providence,  O  Lord, 
to  the  Apostles  of  Thy  Son  Thou  didst  add  as 
comrades  teachers  of  the  Faith,  by  whose  aid  they  filled 
the  whole  world  with  subordinate  preachers.  Wherefore, 
O  Lord,  we  implore  Thee  bestow  this  aid  also  on  our 
infirmity"  (/Sacr.  Leon.  424). 

"  I  can  now  no  longer  escape  from  the  duty  of  teaching 
laid  on  me  by  the  requirements  of  the  Priesthood,  though 
in  truth  I  tried  to  avoid  it.  '  For  God  gave  some  Apostles, 
and  some  Prophets,  and  some  Evangelists,  and  some 
Pastors  and  Teachers' "  (St.  Ambrose,  De  Off.  Min.  i.  i). 

"All  the  functions  and  powers  of  the  Church  were 
summed  up  at  first  in  the  Apostles,  and  were  gradually 
imparted  under  their  authority  and  leading  to  different 
officers  who  shared  the  ;  ame  ministry  in  different  grades. 
Thus,  if  the  function  of  worship,  which  in  the  Christian 
Church  formed  the  spiritual  counterpart  of  the  Temple 
Xfirovpyia,  was  (as  Harnack  says)  the  '  primary  function ' 
of  the  Episcopate,  if  it  was  the  Bishop's  office  to  '  offer 
the  gifts '  (Clem,  ad  Cor.  44),  yet  they  certainly  in  this 
respect  only  share  the  AeiToupyt'a  of  the  prophets  and 
teachers  (Did.  xv.  i),  and  these  prophets  and  teachers 
are  in  the  Acts  specially  brought  before  us  as  fulfilling 
this  function  of  worship  (Acts  xiii.  2).  Prophets  in  fact, 
and  of  course  Apostles,  were  ministers  of  worship  as  well 
as  '  ministers  of  the  word '  and  governing  authorities. 
Then  again  with  reference  to  the  function  of  teaching. 


Jesus  Christ,  to  be  our  Redeemer,  and  the  Author 
of  everlasting  life  ;  who,  after  he  had  made  perfect 
our  redemption  by  his  death,  and  was  ascended 
into  heaven,  sent  abroad  into  the  world  his 
Apostles,  Prophets,  Evangelists,  Doctors,  and  Pas 
tors  ;  by  whose  labour  and  ministry  he  gathered 
together  a  great  flock  in  all  the  parts  of  the  world, 
to  set  forth  the  eternal  praise  of  thy  holy  Name : 
For  these  so  great  benefits  of  thy  eternal  good 
ness,  and  for  that  thou  hast  vouchsafed  to  call 
these  thy  servants  here  present  to  the  same  Office 

It  belongs  primarily  to  Apostles,  and  prophets,  and  teachers 
and  evangelists,  but  it  is  shared  also  by  the  '  bishops ' 
or  '  presbyters '  ( i  These,  v.  12;  i  Tim.  iii.  2 ;  v.  17; 
Tit.  i.  9  ;  Acts  xx.  29,  30;  the  local  'pastors'  are  called 
'teachers'  in  Eph.  iv.  n)"  (Gore,  Christian  Ministry, 
note  K,  p.  400). 

"  'Tis  in  the  Church  that  God  hath  placed  Apostles, 
prophets,  teachers,  and  all  the  remaining  operation  of 
the  Spirit.  Of  this  Spirit  all  they  who  fail  to  have 
recourse  to  the  Church  are  not  partakers ;  but,  through 
their  ill-will  and  most  depraved  action,  they  i-ob  them 
selves  of  life.  For  where  the  Church  is  there  is  the 
Spirit  of  God,  and  where  the  Spirit  of  God  is  there  is 
the  Church  and  every  grace ;  the  Spirit  moreover  is 
truth  "  (Ir.  Haer.  iii.  40). 

"  The  name  '  Evangelist '  denotes  a  work  rather  than 
an  order.  The  Evangelist  might  or  might  not  be 
a  Bishop,  Elder  or  a  Deacon.  The  Apostles,  so  far  as 
they  evangelized,  might  claim  the  title,  though  there 
were  many  Evangelists  who  were  not  Apostles "  (Dean 
Plumptre  in  D.  B.  i.  593). 

In  the  Liturgy  of  St.  Chrysostom,  the  Deacon,  before 
reading  the  Gospel,  says  to  the  Priest,  "Bless,  Sir,  the 
Evangelist  of  the  holy  Apostle  and  Evangelist  .  .  . ;  and 
the  Priest,  signing  him  with  the  sign  of  the  Cross 
(o-ffrpayifav),  says,"  &c.  (In  the  Passio  SS.  Perpetuae  et 
Felicitatis,  c.  A.  D.  202  Aspasius  is  the  Presbyter 


and  Ministry  appointed  for  the  salvation  of  man 
kind  we  render  unto  thee  most  hearty  thanks,  we 
praise  and  worship  thee ;  and  we  humbly  beseech 
thee,  by  the  same  thy  blessed  Son,  to  grant  unto 
all,  which  either  here  or  elsewhere  call  upon  thy 
holy  Name,  that  we  may  continue  to  shew  our 
selves  thankful  unto  thee  for  these  and  all  other 
thy  benefits  ;  and  that  we  may  daily  increase  and 
go  forwards  in  the  knowledge  and  faith  of  thee 
and  thy  Son,  by  the  Holy  Spirit.  So  that  as  well 
by  these  thy  Ministers,  as  by  them  over  whom 
they  shall  be  appointed  thy  Ministers,  thy  holy 
Name  may  be  for  ever  glorified,  and  thy  blessed 
kingdom  enlarged ;  through  the  same  thy  Son 
Jesus  Christ  our  Lord,  who  liveth  and  reigneth 
with  thee  in  the  unity  of  the  same  Holy  Spirit, 
world  without  end.  Amen. 

U  When  this  Prayer  is  done  (47),  the  Bishop  ivith  the  Priests  present 

47.    When  this  Prayer  is  done,  &c. 

"  When  ordaining  a  Presbyter,  O  Bishop,  do  thou 
thyself  lay  thy  hand  upon  his  head,  the  Presbytery  standing 
by  thee"  (Const.  Ap.  viii.  16). 

"  A  Presbyter  lays  on  his  hand,  but  does  not  appoint 
or  ordain,"  id.  28  (xfipoderel,  ou  xfiporovei '.  later  xeip°TOV<-a 
and  x€LP°Qf<T<-a  came  to  be  identical  in  meaning). 

"  When  a  Presbyter  is  ordained,  while  the  Bishop  is 
blessing  him  and  holding  his  hand  on  his  head,  let  all  the 
Presbyters  also  who  are  present  hold  their  hands  over  his 
head  near  the  hand  of  the  Bishop  "  (Cone.  Garth,  iv.  3). 

"  The  Priest  kneels  on  both  knees  before  the  divine 
altar,  and  then  has  on  his  head  the  high-priestly  right 
hand,  and  in  this  manner  at  the  hands  of  the  High  Priest 
who  appoints  him  by  the  invocations  that  make  him 
a  Priest  (rdls  ItpoiroLu'is  tiriK\r)(Te<Tiv}  is  he  consecrated " 
(Dionys.  Areop.  de  Ecc.  Hier.  v.  2). 

"And  while  the  Bishop  blesses  him  let  him  hold  his 
hand  over  his  head.  Likewise  let  the  Presbyters  who 


shall  lay  their  hands  severally  upon  the  head  of  evert/  one  lhat 
receiceth  the  Order  of  Priesthood ;  the  Receivers  humltly  kneeling 
upon  their  knees,  and  the  Bishop  saying, 

Receive  the  Holy  Ghost  (48)  for  the  Office  and 

are  present  hold  their  hands  near  the  hand  of  the  Bishop 
over  his  head  "  (Pontifical  of  Egbert). 

In  the  Eoman  Pontifical  the  Bishop  and  Priests  lay 
both  their  hands  on  the  head  of  the  candidates,  after 
which  they  hold  their  right  hands  extended  over  them. 

In  the  Greek  Pontifical  the  Bishop,  holding  his  right 
hand  on  the  candidate's  head,  says,  "  The  Divine  grace, 
which  always  healeth  that  which  is  sick  and  filleth  up 
that  which  lacketh,  advances  N.  the  most  pious  Deacon 
to  be  Priest.  Let  us  therefore  pray  for  him  that  the 
grace  of  the  All-Holy  Spirit  may  come  upon  him." 

"  And  this  to  be  true  Chrysostom  affirmeth  in  his 
eighty-fifth  homily  upon  St.  John,  where  he  saith  in  this 
manner  :  '  What  speak  I  of  Priests  ?  I  say  that  neither 
Angel  nor  Archangel  can  of  his  own  power  give  us  any 
of  those  things  which  be  given  us  from  God :  but  it  is 
the  Father,  the  Son,  and  the  Holy  Ghost  which  is  the 
effectual  cause  of  all  those  things;  the  Priest  doth 
only  put  to  his  hand  and  tongue.'  And  in  this  point 
St.  Ambrose  also  agreeth  with  the  said  opinion  of 
Chrysostom.  For  in  his  book,  De  Dignitate  Sacerdotali, 
he  saith  these  words :  '  The  Priest  layeth  his  hand  upon 
us,  but  it  is  God  that  giveth  the  grace.  The  Priest 
layeth  upon  us  his  beseeching  hand,  but  God  blesseth  us 
with  His  mighty  hand.  The  Bishop  consecrateth  another 
Bishop,  but  it  is  God  that  giveth  the  dignity '  "  (Institution 
of  a  Christian  Man,  p.  106). 

48.  Receive  the  Holy  Ghost,  &c. 

Prayer  and  the  laying  on  of  hands  being  the  essential 
"  form  and  matter "  of  Ordination,  without  any  speci 
fication  of  the  words  to  be  used,  there  is  no  Catholic  rule 
as  to  the  form,  and  antiquity  exhibits  variety. 

"  There  was  no  rite  common  to  the  whole  Church,  no 
Catholic  rite,  from  which  we  departed  at  the  Reforma 
tion  "  (Bishop  Browne,  Speech  at  the  Church  House, 
C.  H.  S.  Tract,  xvii). 

The  form  in  the  Canons  of  Hippolytus,  third  century, 


Work  of  a  Priest  in  the  Church  of  God,  now  com 
mitted  unto  thee  by  the  Imposition  of  our  hands. 
Whose  sins  thou  dost  forgive,  they  are  forgiven; 
and  whose  sins  thou  dost  retain,  they  are  retained. 

was  :  "  Receive  his  prayers  and  oblations,  which  he  shall 
offer  to  Thee  day  and  night,  and  may  they  be  to  Thee 
a  pleasing  odour.  Bestow  upon  him  the  Presbyterate 
and  the  spirit  of  mercy,  and  the  power  to  remit  sins, 
and  the  faculty  of  dissolving  all  the  bonds  of  the  iniquity 
of  demons,  and  of  healing  all  diseases,  and  beat  down 
Satan  under  his  feet  quickly."  Cf.  Cann.  Hipp,  in  Texte 
und  Untersuchungen,  Gebhart  and  Harnack,  vi.  46. 

The  Maronite. 

"  Presented  to  the  high  and  sublime  order  of  Presbyters, 
may  he  minister  at  Thy  altar  without  condemnation ; 
may  he  honour  Thy  holy  throne,  and  there  offer  perfect 
sacrifices  and  spiritual  gifts ;  may  he  renew  Thy  people 
by  the  laver  of  regeneration." 

The  Coptic. 

"  Look  upon  Thy  servant  promoted  to  the  order  of  the 
Presbyterate  :  fill  him  with  Thy  Holy  Spirit  that  he  may 
preside  over  and  rule  Thy  people  with  a  pure  heart :  give 
him  the  spirit  of  wisdom  that  he  may  be  full  of  salutary 
virtues  arid  the  word  of  doctrine  ;  that  he  may  teach  Thy 
people  in  gentleness  and  serve  Thee  in  holiness ;  that  he 
may  pei-fect  the  works  of  the  Priesthood  on  Thy  people 
who  duly  show  Thy  misery  to  him  ;  that  he  may  regenerate 
them  in  the  font." 

The  Nestorian. 

'•  Choose  them,  0  Lord,  to  the  Priesthood,  that  they 
may  lay  hands  on  the  sick  and  they  may  be  cured;  that 
with  pure  heart  and  good  conscience  they  may  serve  at 
Thy  holy  altar,  offering  to  Thee  the  oblations  of  prayers 
and  the  sacrifices  of  confessions  in  Thy  holy  Church." 

The  Armenian. 

"  Keep  him  whom  thou  hast  received  to  the  Presbyterate 
unmoved  in  that  Priesthood.  Let  him  stand  in  that 
Priesthood,  built  and  strengthened  on  the  rock  of  the 
faith  of  the  Apostles  and  Prophets  :  may  he  have  apostolic 
grace  to  expel  diseases  and  evil  spirits,  to  call  the  Holy 


And  be  thou  a  faithful  Dispenser  of  the  Word  of 
God,  and  of  his  holy  Sacraments  ;  In  the  Name  of 
the  Father  and  of  the  Son,  and  of  the  Holy  Ghost. 

U  Then  the  Buhop  shall  deliver  to  every  one  of  them  kneeling  (49), 
the  Bible  into  his  hand,  saying, 

Take  thou  Authority  (50)  to  preach  the  Word  of 

Spirit  from  heaven  for  the  spiritual  life  of  the  regenerate, 
renewing  them  in  the  sacred  font ;  may  he  perform  the 
terrihle  and  Holy  Sacrament  of  the  Body  and  Blood  of 
our  Lord  for  the  remission  of  faults ;  may  he  worthily 
fulfil  every  office  of  the  Priesthood." 

The  actual  words,  Accipe  Spiritum  Sanctum :  quorum 
remiseris  peccata,  remittuntur  eis,  et  quorum  retinueris, 
retenta  erunt  are  used  in  the  mediaeval  Pontifical  with 
a  second  imposition  of  hands,  and  are  first  found  in  the 
Mainz  Pontifical  of  the  thirteenth  century  (Morin,  279  E; 
Martene,  ii.  327).  They  appear  in  a  Bangor  MS.  of  the 
same  century,  and  in  a  Roman  Pontifical  of  the  fourteenth. 
They  are  not  in  the  Pontificals  of  Egbert  or  Dunstan, 
nor  in  any  of  the  foreign  authorities  printed  by  Martene 
before  the  twelfth  century  (see  Maskell,  Mon.  Rit.  iii. 
220).  In  the  modern  Roman  Pontifical  the  candidates 
are  called  "  ordinati  "  before  the  use  of  this  form. 

49.  Then  the  Bishop  shall  deliver  to  every  one  of  them 
kneeling,  &c. 

Here,  in  the  mediaeval  Pontificals,  e.g.  according  to 
the  Use  of  Sarum,  the  Bishop  delivered  "the  paten  with 
the  oblations  and  the  cup  with  wine."  The  Eubric  of  1550 
ordered  the  Bible  to  be  delivered  "  with  one  hand,  and 
the  chalice  or  cup,  with  the  bread,  in  the  other  hand." 
On  the  comparative  modernness  of  the  custom  of  the  por- 
rection  of  the  paten  and  cup,  cf.  pp.  21,  22.  The  delivery, 
however  picturesque  and  significant,  was  omitted  in 
1552,  the  "preaching  of  the  word  of  God"  being  indi 
cated  by  the  gift  of  the  Bible ;  the  "  ministering  of  the 
Holy  Sacraments  "  being  described  by  word  only. 

50.  Take  thou  Authority,  &c. 

The  first  Canon  of  the  Council  of  Ancyra  (A.D.  314)  in 
prohibiting  Priests  who  have  lapsed  into  heathenism  and 
then  returned,  from  discharging  a  Presbyter's  functions, 


God,  and  to  minister  the  holy  Sacraments  in  the 
Congregation  (5 1 ),  where  thou  shalt  be  lawfully 
appointed  thereunto. 

H  When  this  is  done,  the  Nicene  Creed  shall  be  sung  or  said :  and 
the  Bishop  shall  after  that  go  on  in  the  Service  of  the  Com 
munion,  which  all  they  that  receive  Orders  shall  take  together, 
and  remain  in  the  same  place  where  Hands  icere  laid  upon  them, 
until  such  time  as  they  have  received  the  Communion. 

^  The  Communion  being  done,  after  the   last  Collect,  and  imme 
diately  before  the  Benediction,  shall  be  (aid  these  Collects. 

[For  newly  ordained  Deacons.'] 

Almighty  God,  giver  of  all  good  things,  who  of 
thy  great  goodness  hast  vouchsafed  to  accept  and 
take  these  thy  servants  unto  the  Office  of  Deacons 
in  thy  Church;  Make  them,  we  beseech  thee, 
O  Lord,  to  be  modest,  humble,  and  constant  in  their 
Ministration,  to  have  a  ready  will  to  observe  all 

sums  up  these  functions  as  offering  the  oblations 1, 
preaching,  or  performing  any  of  the  sacred  "  liturgies " 
(Labbe,  iv.  1680). 

Isidore  of  Seville  (t  636)  on  the  Services  of  the  Church 
(c.  vii)  writes  :  "  To  them,"  i.  e.  Presbyters,  "  no  less  than 
to  Bishops,  is  committed  the  stewardship  of  the  mysteries 
of  God ;  for  they  take  the  chief  authority  in  Christ's 
churches,  alike  in  the  consecration  of  the  Body  and 
Blood,  and  in  teaching  the  people,  and  in  the  office  of 

"  The  Sacrament  of  the  Eucharist  we  receive  from  the 
hand  of  none  others  than  our  '  presidents ' "  (Tertullian, 
de  Cor.  Mil.  cap.  iii). 

51.  The  Congregation. 

The  Books  of  1550  and  1552  read  "  this  congregation." 
The  change  to  "  the "  widens  the  commission  to  the 
Church  generally,  "the  congregation"  having  the  sense 
of  "Ecclesia,"  as  in  Art.  XXIV. 

1  In  the  Syriac  "  Corban."  Cf.  G.  B.  Howard,  Canons  of  the 
Primitive  Church,  from  the  Syriac. 



spiritual  Discipline ;  that  they  having  always  the 
testimony  of  a  good  conscience,  and  continuing 
ever  stable  and  strong  in  thy  Son  Christ,  may  so 
well  behave  themselves  in  this  inferior  Office,  that 
they  may  be  found  worthy  to  be  called  unto  the 
higher  Ministries  in  thy  Church ;  through  the  same 
thy  Son  our  Saviour  Jesus  Christ,  to  whom  be 
glory  and  honour  world  without  end.  Amen. 

[For  newly-ordained  Priests.] 

Most  merciful  Father  (52),  we  beseech  thee  to  send 
upon  these  thy  servants  thy  heavenly  blessing  ; 
that  they  may  be  clothed  with  righteousness,  and 
that  thy  Word  spoken  by  their  mouths  may  have 
such  success,  that  it  may  never  be  spoken  in  vain. 

52.  Most  merciful  Father,  &c. 

The  prayer  of  the  mediaeval  service,  after  the  first 
imposition  of  hands 1,  laid  stress  on  the  "  transformation  " 
of  the  bread  and  wine  in  terms  in  themselves  primitive, 
but  open  to  misconstruction  in  view  of  erroneous  theories 
of  transubstantiation : 

"  0  God,  the  author  of  all  gifts  of  sanctification,  Thou 
from  whom  cometh  true  consecration  and  full  benediction, 
do  Thou,  0  Lord,  on  these  Thy  servants  whom  we  dedicate 
Avith  the  dignity  of  the  presbyterate  pour  forth  the  gift 
of  Thy  benediction :  to  the  end  that  by  the  seriousness 
of  their  conversation  and  severity  of  life,  they  may  prove 
themselves  elders,  trained  in  the  studies  which  Paul 
taught  to  Titus  and  Timothy,  and  so,  meditating  day  and 
night  in  Thy  law,  they  may  believe  what  they  have  read, 
teach  what  they  have  believed,  and  act  up  to  what  they 
have  taught.  Grant  that  they  may  show  forth  in  them 
selves  justice,  constancy,  mercy,  fortitude,  and  the  re 
mainder  of  the  virtues.  May  they  prove  by  example, 
confirm  by  admonition,  and  keep  pure  and  undefiled  the 

1  On  successive  varieties  in  this  Prayer,  cf.  Gore's  Christian 
Ministry,  note  C,  p.  367.  A  peculiarity  of  the  Roman  ordinal  is  its 
probable  combination  of  Roman  and  Gallican  forms. 


Grant  also,  that  we  may  have  grace  to  hear  and 
receive  what  they  shall  deliver  out  of  thy  most 

gift  of  their  ministry.  May  they  through  the  service  of 
Thy  people1  transform2  tlie  bread  and  wine  into  the  Body 
and  Blood  of  Thy  Son  by  holy  and  undefiled  benediction, 
and  by  inviolable  charity,  to  a  perfect  man,  to  the  measure 
of  the  stature  of  the  fulness  of  Christ,  in  the  day  of  just 
and  eternal  judgement,  in  purity  of  conscience  and  fulness 
of  faith,  full  of  the  Holy  Ghost "  (Sacr.  Gelasii,  ed.  H.  A. 
Wilson,  p.  24). 

In  the  Greek  Liturgy,  after  the  laying  on  of  the  right 
hand  :  "  Then  those  within  the  Bema,  and  the  singers  say, 
Lord,  have  mercy.  The  Bishop,  having  again  signed  him 
thrice,  and  keejnng  the  hand  on  his  Jiead,  says  the  following 
prayer  secretly,  after  the  Deacon  has  said,  Let  us  beseech 
the  Lord." 

"  0  God,  unbeginning  and  unending,  Who  art  elder 
than  all  creation,  Who  hast  honoured  with  the  title  of 
Priest  those  accounted  worthy  to  discharge  the  holy 
ministry  of  the  word  of  Thy  truth  in  this  degree ; 
vouchsafe,  O  Lord  of  all,  that  this  man  whom  Thou  hast 
been  pleased  to  advance  by  me  may  receive  this  great 
grace  of  Thy  Holy  Spirit,  in  blameless  conversation  and 
unswerving  faith,  and  make  Thy  servant  perfect,  in  all 
things  well  pleasing  unto  Thee,  and  guiding  well  this 
great  priestly  honour  given  unto  him  by  Thy  foreknowing 
power.  For  Thine  is  the  might,  and  Thine  is  the  king 
dom,  and  the  power  and  the  glory,  Father,  Son,  and  Holy 
Ghost,  now  and  ever,  and  to  ages  of  ages." 

"And  after  this  prayer  the  principal  Priest  says  in 
a  low  tone,  loud  enough  for  his  colleagues  to  hear  and 
respond,  the  Diaconal  sentences " :  In  peace,  &c.  (as  for 

1  "Per  obsequium  plebis  luae."  Cf.  "obsequium"  in  Vul.  Eom. 
xii.  where  "  rationabile  obsequium  "  =  "  reasonable  service."  So  in 
the  Order  of  the  Mass  :  "  Orate  fratres  ut  meum  ac  vestrum  sacri- 
ficium  fiat  acceptabile  apud  Deum  Patrem  Omnipotentem."  The 
sacrifice  is  the  offering  of  the  Church. 

a  Transforment.  The  words  fj^rairoitiv ,  "  transformare," 
"  transfigurare,"  were  in  use  of  the  holy  mysteries  before  the 
grosser  conceptions,  which  date  from  the  ninth  century,  were  in 
the  horizon.  Cf.  Tlieodoret,  Dial.  II,  quoting  Ambrose  against 

F  2 


holy  Word,  or  agreeable  to  the  same,  as  the  means 
of  our  salvation  ;  that  in  all  our  words  and  deeds 
we  may  seek  thy  glory,  and  the  increase  of  thy 
kingdom  ;  through  Jesus  Christ  our  Lord.  Amen. 

Prevent  us,  O  Lord,  in  all  our  doings,  with  thy 
most  gracious  favour,  and  further  us  with  thy 
continual  help ;  that  in  all  our  works  begun,  con 
tinued,  and  ended  in  thee,  we  may  glorify  thy  holy 
Name,  and  finally  by  thy  mercy  obtain  everlasting 
life  ;  through  Jesus  Christ  our  Lord.  Amen. 

The  peace  of  God,  which  passeth  all  understand 
ing,  keep  your  hearts  and  minds  in  the  knowledge 

a  Deacon).  For  the  servant  of  God  (iV.)  now  advanced 
to  be  Priest  and  for  his  salvation. 

"  That  our  loving  God  may  grant  him  a  spotless  and 
blameless  Priesthood,"  &c. 

The  Bishop,  holding  his  hand  still  on  the  head  of  the 
candidate,  prays  again  as  follows  secretly  : 

"  0  God,  mighty  in  power,  and  unsearchable  in  wisdom, 
wonderful  in  counsel  above  the  sons  of  men,  fill,  O  Lord, 
with  the  gift  of  Thy  Holy  Spirit,  this  man  whom  Thou 
bast  been  pleased  should  enter  the  degree  of  Priest,  that 
he  may  be  worthy  to  stand  blamelessly  before  Thine  altar, 
to  preach  the  Gospel  of  Thy  kingdom,  to  discharge  the 
sacred  ministry  of  tbe  word  of  Thy  truth,  to  offer  unto 
Thee  gifts  and  spiritual  sacrifices,  to  renew  Thy  people 
tbrough  the  laver  of  regeneration,  that  at  the  second 
coming  of  the  great  God  and  our  Saviour  Jesus  Christ, 
Thine  Only-begotten  Son,  he  may  then  receive  the  reward 
of  his  good  administration  of  his  proper  order  in  the 
multitude  of  Thy  goodness.  For  Thine  awful  and  glorious 
Name,  that  of  the  Father,  the  Son,  and  the  Holy  Ghost,  is 
blest  and  magnified  now  and  ever,  and  to  ages  of  ages. 

Cf.  Institution  of  a  Christian  Man,  p.  159. 

"  Grant  that  all  they  that  preach  Thy  word  may 
profitably  and  godly  preach  Thee  and  Thy  Son,  Jesus 
Christ,  through  all  the  world :  and  that  all  we  which 


and  love  of  God,  and  of  his  Son  Jesus  Christ  our 
Lord :  And  the  blessing  of  God  Almighty,  the 
Father,  the  Son,  and  the  Holy  Ghost,  be  amongst 
you,  and  remain  with  you  always.  Amen. 

U  And  here  it  must  be  declared  unto  the  Deacon,  that  he  must 
continue  in  that  Office  of  a  Deacon  the  space  of  a  whole  year 
(except  for  reasonable  causes  it  shall  othericise  seem  good  unto 
the  Bishop)  to  the  intent  he  may  be  perfect,  and  ivell  expert  in 
the  things  appertaining  to  the  Ecclesiastical  Administration. 
In  executing  whereof  if  he  be  found  faithful  and  diligent,  he 
may  be  admitted  by  his  Diocesan  to  the  Order  of  Priesthood,  at 
the  times  appointed  in  the  Canon;  or  else,  on  urgent  occasion, 
upon  some  other  Sunday,  or  Holy-day,  in  the  face  of  the  Church, 
in  such  manner  and  form  as  hereafter  followeth. 

hear  Thy  word  preached  may  so  be  fed  therewith  that 
not  only  we  may  outwardly  receive  the  same,  but  also 
digest  it  within  our  hearts ;  and  tliat  it  may  so  work  and 
feed  every  part  of  us  that  it  may  appear  in  all  the  acts 
and  deeds  of  our  life." 


Altar,  33. 

Ambrose,  32,  65,  72,  75. 
aw6aTo\os,  57. 
Athanasiu.«,  28,  31,  58,  63. 
Augustine,    28,  31,  34,   52,  59, 
65,  66,  68. 

Bainbriilge,  Archbp.,  32,  36. 

Basil,  27,  61,  63. 

Bead,  14. 

Bidding,  14. 

Bingham,  65. 

Bishop,  26. 

/8«/wj,  33. 

Bossuet,  20. 

Browne,  G.  F.,  Bp.,  78. 

Canons : 

Apost.,  1 6,  50,  59,  77. 

Conv.  of  1571,  48. 

Hippolytus,  78. 
Cassock,  6. 
\dpiff pa,  23. 
Charlemagne,  73. 
Chaucer,  14. 
XtipoOtTeiv,  77- 
Chrysostom,  32,  66,  76. 
Clement  of  Alexandria,  51. 
Clement  VIII,  Pope,  25. 
Clement  of  Rome,  15,  27,  63,  75. 
Constantino,  Emp.,  59,  68. 
Cosin,  Bp.,  73. 
Councils  : 

Ancyra,  80. 

Bonn  Conf.,  20. 

Carthage,  iii.  51. 

Carthage,  iv.  53,  77. 

Chalcedon,  70. 

Neocaesarea,  29. 

Nicaea,  16,  68. 

Ravenna,  29. 

Sardica,  29. 

Toledo,  6 1,  65. 

Trent,  15. 

Vaison,  50. 

Cranmer,  Archbp.,  24. 
Cyprian,  27,  49,  59,  70. 

Daniel,  Can.,  21. 
Deacon,  26. 
Didache,  75. 
Dionysius,  Ar.  77. 
Dollinger,  20. 
Dryden,  73. 
Duchesne,  20,  25. 
Dunstan,  80. 

Egbert,  Archbp.,  21,  25,  78. 
Ember,  15. 
Epiphanius,  50,  65. 
(iriTe\fiv,  50. 
Ethel  wold,  21. 
ivxapiGTtiv,  49. 
Eucharius,  21. 
Eugenius  IV,  Pope,  22. 
Evangelist,  76. 

Felicitas  and  Perpetua,  76. 

Gelasius,  61,  82. 
Goar,  39. 

Gore,  Can.,  17,  76,  81. 
Gregory  of  Naz.,  67. 

Hadrian  I,  Pope,  25. 
Harnack,  75- 
Herbert,  G.,  52. 
Hermann,  Archbp.,  60,  61. 


Hippolytus,  78. 
Homilies,  19. 
Hooker,  49. 
Howard,  G.  B.,  70,  8 1. 

Ignatius,  28,  31,  33,  52. 
Irenaeus,  28,  66. 
Isidore,  17,  81. 

Jerome,  68,  70. 
Justinian,  48. 

Kaye,  Bp.,  49. 
King's  Book,  16. 
K\TJpos,  15. 

Le  Courayer,  20. 
\fiTOvpyta,  75. 
Leo  I,  Pope,  25,  39,  44. 
Littledale,  44,  53. 
Liturgies ; 

Chrysostom,  76. 

1  Ed.  VI,  24. 

2  Ed.  VI,  33. 
(ielasius,  61,  82. 
Hadrian,  25. 
Leo,  25,  39,  44. 

Luther,  18. 

Mabillon,  22. 
Marshall,  66. 
fjifTairoLeiv,  82. 
Milton,  58,  68. 
Minucius,  Felix,  33. 
Morin,  80. 

Obsequium,  82. 
Oecumenius,  26. 
olKov6fj.os,  57. 
Ordinary,  52. 
Ordo,  15,  1 6. 

Palmer,  56,  65. 
Parish,  62. 
Pastor,  58. 
Perpetua,  76. 
Plumptre,  76. 

,    58. 

Polycarp,  67. 
Pontificals  : 

Bainbridge,  32,  36. 

Cambrai,  56. 

Egbert,  25,  78. 

Eng.  MS.,  50. 

Exeter,  32. 

Greek,  32,  44,  54,  62,  70. 

Mainz,  56,  80. 

Mediaeval,  34,  53,  54,  62,  70. 

Noyon,  34. 

Roman,  25. 

Salzburg,  56. 

Saruin,  32. 

Soissons,  36,  56,  72. 

Tours,  31,  57,  67. 
Priest,  26. 
Procter,  34. 

Eabanmaur,  Archbp.,  73. 
Rufinus,  48. 

Sozomen,  68. 
ff(ppayi^a},  76. 
Stole,  6. 
Surplice,  6. 
Swete,  17,  21, 

Table,  33. 

Tacitus,  15. 

ra£is,  15. 

Taylor,  Jeremy,  Bp.,  32,  67. 

Tertullian,   15,   21,   28,   49,   62, 

64,  81. 

Theodoret,  50,  82. 
Theophilus  of  Alexandria,  30. 
ffvffLaaTTjpiov,  33. 
Transformare,  82. 

Varro,  21. 

Wesley,  19. 
Westcott,  Bp.,  23. 

Xenophon,  15. 
Zacliary,  Pope,  29. 





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The  Celts,  by  the  Rev.  G.  F.  MACLEAR,  D.D. 
The  Eng-lish,  by  the  Rev.  G.  F.  MACLEAR,  D.D. 
The  Northmen,  by  the  Rev.  G.  F.  MACLEAR,  D.D. 
Th«  Slavs,  by  the  Rev.  G.  F.  MACLEAR.  D.D. 



This  Series  of  Books  is  intenHrd  to  throw  light  upon  the  writings  and  labour* 
of  the  Apostle  of  the  Gentiles,  by  furnishing'  an  account  of  the  Environ 
rnent,  Social,  Political,  &c.,  of  St.  Paul  in  the  several  great  heathen  centre*. 

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EJt.  Paul  In  Greece,  by  the  Rev.  G.  S.  DAVIES,  M.A.,  Charterhouse, 

St.  Paul  in  Damascus  and  Arabia,  by  the  Rev.  GEORGE  RAWLIN 

SON,  M.A.,  Canon  of  Canterbury. 
St.  Paul  at  Rome,  by  the  Very  Rev.  CHARLES  MERIVALE,  D.D., 

D.C.L.,  Dean  of  Ely. 
St   Paul  in  Asia  Mi:- or,  and  at  the  Syrian  Antioch,  by  the  late 

Rev.  E.  H.  PLUMPTRE,  D.D. 


Fcap.  8vo,  with  Map,  cloth   boards. 

Diocese  of  Mackenzie  Elver,  by  the  Right  Rev.  \V.  C.  BOM  PAS, 
D.D.,  Bishop  of  the  Diocese.  2J. 

New  Zealand,  by  the  Very  Rev.  HENRY  JACOBS,  D.D.,  Dean  of 
Christchurch.  Containing  the  Dioceses  of  Auckland,  Christ- 
church,  Dunedin,  Nelson,  Waiapu,  Wellington  and  Melanesia.  5*. 

History  of  the  Crmrch  in  Eastern  Canada  and  Newfoundland, 
by  the  Rev.  J.  LANGTRY.  jj. 


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I.  Sermons  for  Advent  and  Christmastide. 

II.  Epiphany  to  Ash  Wednesday. 

III.  Ash  Wednesday  to  Easter. 

IV.  Easter  Day  to  Tuesday  in  Whitsun  Week. 

V.     Trinity  Sunday  to  Eighth  Sunday  after  Trinity. 
VI.     Ninth  Sunday  after  Trinity  to  St.  Michael  and  All  Angels. 
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